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BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 




^'ETWEEN 

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Life and Death 



THE STORY OF 

C.E.Z.A.S. /v\EDICAL MISSIONS 

IN INDIA CHINA. AND CEYLON 



IRENE H BARNES 

Airnou i)i' 
H lUNi) nil'; Gi<i;\i wai.i,." ■ukminii thk pahdah," ktc. etc. 



WITH IM.USTR ATIOXS I!\' I'ERCV R. CRAFT 
AND I. 1). MACK.KXZIE 



MAKSHALI. IIROTIIKKS. Kkswick Hoisk. 

l^ATKRNOSIKK ROW, EC 
AMI 

CHCRCH nV 1:X(;LAN1) /KXANA .M1SSI()XAR\' 

socii:r\' 

2/ Chaxckrv Lanp:, W C 
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Xlo tbc 

/IRissiotiaries aiiD ifjomc "CUloihers 

of the 

Cburcb of E^c^lan^ Zenana /iftissioiian? Society 

tbis booh iLi uiBcrlbeO, 

ill tohcii of warm fvienDsbip, 

anC> witb a inateful sense of tbe benefit of 

tbeir invaluable cooperation. 



**5esus went fortb aiiD saw a areat nuiltitiiOe, aiiD vva& 
moveO with compaesion toward tbeni, and 1l3e bealeD 
tbeir sich."-ST. Matt. xiv. i4. 



PREFATORY NOTE 

A LARGE number of the Illustrations that appear 
on the pages of Between Life and Death 
are the valuable work and generous gift of the 
Artists whose names appear on the title-page. This 
little volume is issued with the pra3^er that God may 
use it to deepen in many hearts a sense of the extreme 
need of Twofold Healing, which women in the East are 
suffering to-day, and that its perusal may hasten thither 
the feet of consecrated and competent women-doctors 
and nurses. For what a boundless field is awaiting the 
exercise of their high and holy calling it has been the 
prayerful aim of Artists and Authoress to depict. Shall 
their labour be in vain ? 

December, igoi. 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTORY 2 

CHAPTER I 

BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 1 3 

CHAPTER H 

CALL. THE DOCTOR IN 34 

CHAPTER III 

A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 54 

CHAPTER IV 

THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES .... 69 

CHAPTER V 

WOUNDED LAMBS 105 

CHAPTER VI 

CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 143. 

CHAPTER VII 

I WAS SICK 162 

CHAPTER VIII 

THE KEY IN THE LOCK I99 

CHAPTER IX 

PATHS OF PAIN 235 

CHAPTER X 

THE DOUBLE CURE . 265 

CHAPTER XI 

NATIVE NURSES a»d NATIVE NURSES . . . . 29I 



GLOSSARY. 

N.B. — The code of spelling adopted in "Between Life and 
Death "' is that known as the '' Hunterian System," after Sir William 
Wilson Hunter, and used by the Indian Government. 

Bazar — Street in which there are shops. 

Chaddar — \'eil worn by women. 

Charpaie— A bedstead : literally a four-legyed thing. 

Chupatti — I'he unleavened bread commonly eaten by natives 
of India. 

Daie— A name used for a midwife and for a foster mother. 

Ual— A kind of pulse. 

Dhurri — A native cotton rug. 

Duli — A sort of Sedan chair. 

Fakir — A religious beggar. 

Ghitti — A narrow lane. 

Kachcha — Unsubstantial; applied to "lath and plaster" 
building, &c. 

Kurta — A part of the dress, answering to jacket. 

Mela — Fair or any large gathering. 

Xawar — Native tape webbing. 

I'anchayat — A gathering in a family or caste to settle any 
question. Five being a quorum, the name 
panchayat is used, as panch means five. 

Pandit — Learned man. 

Pardah — Seclusion of women. 

Pice — Small copper coin. 

Pipal — A large, spreading tree — sacred. 

Puja — Worship (Hindu). 

Pakha — Firm ; applied to Ijrick or stone building, &c. 

Resai — A native cotton quilt. 



GLOSSARY 



AIDS TO PRONUNCIATION 

a — Without an accent has the sound of // in fun, or o in come 
Hence, pardali sliould be pronounced " purdah " : Avirihar-, 
" Umritsar " ; C/iaddar, " Chud-dar " ; pandil^ " pundit," &c- 

a — With an accent has the sound of a mfar or a/i / 

i — Without an accent has the sound of short e, as / in police. 
Hence, Bibi should be pronounced ''be-be"; LacJimi., 
" Latch-mee "' 

1 — With an accent has the sound of long c, as / in pier. Hence. 
<'/i/ should be pronounced "i^hee '' : /??/'/;-," fakeer" ; hakim., 
" ha-keem." 

u — Without an accent has the sound of oo. Thus puja is pro- 
nounced " poojah," and si/dni, "soodra." 

e — Has the sound of c in ^i^rey. Hence, j>iela should be pro- 
nounced " mey-lar '" ; Be/tar, " bey-har." 

o — Has the sound of o in Iwnc. 

ai — Has the sound of y in /yre. Hence daic should be pronounced 
" dye '■■ 



INTRODUCTORY. 

" I have travelled for more than seven years in Asia, and 
as a traveller entirely unconnected with Missions except by 
sympathy and interest. As a traveller, I desire to bear the very 
strongest testimony that can be borne to the blessing of Medical 
Missions wherever they can be carried on as they ought to be. 
On the western frontier of China, I should say that a single 
Medical Missionary might do more than twenty evangelistic 
missionaries at the present time, and that there is room, 
I was going to say, for fifty Medical Missionaries in the world 
where there is but one now ; and not only room for them, but a 
claim for them." — Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop. 



V - . ' "We have no hakim-'' in the 

Hkeness of Jesus." It was the 
spontaneous avowal of some 
travel-stained, pain- worn 
Persians to whom a Christian 
lady traveller had been minis- 
tering simple remedies from 
her small medicine chest. 
" What do you do this for ? " 
they inquired with perplexity. 
"I do it for the love of Jesus, 
my Master and my Lord," 
was her reply. Then with 
an outburst of genuine feeling 
they exclaimed, " You call 
Jesus your Master and Lord, 
and we think the same about 
Mahommed, but we have no 
hakim in the likeness of Jesus." 
What more beautiful defini- 
tion of a Medical Missionary could there be ? Does 
* Literallv priest-doctor. 

3 U* 




On the Road to Kucheng. 



4 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

it not touch the very heart of the Medical Mission- 
ary movement ? The true hakim in the likeness 
of Jesus ministers the double cure, for soul and 
body, not from benevolence or any lesser motive, but 
simply that he may follow in the footsteps of the 
Lord Whom he loves — that First Great Medical 
Missionary Whose example he is eager to imitate. 

It is time that apology for Medical Missions ceased 
and that unfair criticism passed away. ' Yet there 
are those to-day, who, unacquainted with such work 
except in theory, are ready to avow the system as 
at least open to question. They represent the Medical 
Missionary as one who, by the bribe of healing, is 
slyly seeking to subvert his patient's faith in a religion 
" good enough " for him. A remark made to the 
writer by an educated Christian Indian lady, a quali- 
fied medical practitioner, is worth quoting here. 
" One smiles sometimes at the arguments of cavillers 
who state (presumably on their own authority) that 
Medical Missions are a Jesuitical proceeding; patients 
are secured for treatment and then told that they 
must have a dose of the Bible first. The fact is that 
the people of India are so intensely religious them- 
selves that they can far better appreciate good works 
when done in the name of religion than through phil- 
anthropy. The latter is a word they do not understand. 
Even a careless woman will be serious when she asks, 
' Give me something in the Name of Jesus Whom 
you serve, and I shall be sure to get better.' Civilized 
people may and will call this superstition, but it really 
means the religion of an ignorant soul." 

In all uncivilized heathen nations, the two offices 
of Priest and Physician are united. With the Chal- 
deans, Egyptians, Jews, and Red Indians it has been 
so. It is a natural order of things which commends 
itself to all men's hearts. In Mahommedan countries 
all Christians are expected to be able to heal. 

There are traces of the Medical Mission movement 



INTRODUCTORY 5 

in the early history of modern Missions. As long 
ago as 1703, General Christopher Codrington, 
Governor of the Leeward Islands, bequeathed valuable 
plantations in the Island of Barbadoes to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
with the stipulation that an institution should be main- 
tained there, in which the students ''shall be obliged 
to study and practise Phisick and Chirurgery as well 
as Divinity, that by the apparent usefulness of the 
former to all mankind they may both endear them- 
selves to the people, and have the better opportunity 
of doing good to men's souls whilst they are taking 
care of their bodies." The early Danish and Moravian 
Missions were among the first to send Missionary 
Physicians to labour in India and Persia between 
1730 and 1747. But, since no permanent agency of 
this kind was established, it may be truly said that it 
is hardly more than a lifetime since the majority 
of Medical Missionary pioneers entered the field. Yet 
the rapid progress of Medical Missions has been 
astonishing. 

More than once in the last two or three years the 
C.M.S. has received petitions from the inhabitants 
of bigoted Moslem cities begging that a doctor might 
be sent to them, and quite recently a heathen man 
presented the Society with a large building on con- 
dition that it was to be used as a Mission Hospital ; 
a tangible testimony to native appreciation. By word 
and deed the people themselves are showing how 
deep is the impression made upon them by this agency. 
In India, at the close of a lecture by Dr. Chamberlain, 
of the American Arcot Mission, when nearly two 
hundred Brahmins, farmers, artisans, officials, and 
students were present, a learned Brahmin politely asked 
permission to address the meeting, and then said : — 

"I have watched the Missionaries and seen what 
they are. What have they come to this country for ? 
What tempts them to leave their parents, friends, and 



6 BETWEEN LIFE AXD DEATH 

country and come to this, to them, unheaUhy clime ? 
Is it for gain or profit they come ? Some of us country 
clerks in Government offices receive larger salaries 
than they. Is it for an easy life ? See how they work 
and then tell me. Look at this Missionary ! He came 
here a few years ago leaving all and seeking only our 
good ! He was met with cold looks and suspicious 
glances, and was shunned and maligned. He sought 
to talk with us of what, he told us, was the matter 
of most importance in heaven and earth, but we would 
not listen. He was not discouraged ; he opened a 
Dispensary, and we said : ' Let the pariahs take his 
medicines^we won't.' But in the time of our sickness 
and distress and fear we were glad to go to him and 
he welcomed us. We complained at first if he walked 
through our Brahmin streets, but ere long when our 
wives and our daughters were in sickness and anguish 
we went and begged him to come, even into our inner 
apartments — and he came, and our wives and our 
daughters now smile upon us in health. Has he made 
any money by it ? Even the cost of the medicine he 
has given has not been returned to him. 

" Now what is it that makes him do all this for us ? 
It is his Bible. I have looked into it a great deal at 
one time or another in the different languages I chance 
to know. It is just the same in all languages — The 
Bible — there is nothing to compare with it in all our 
sacred books for goodness and purity, and holiness 
and love, and for motives of action. Where do the 
English people get all their intelligence and energy, 
and cleverness and power ? It is their Bible that 
gives it to them. And now they bring it to us and say, 
' That is what raised us : take it and raise yourselves.' 
They do not force it upon us as did the Mahom- 
medans with their Qiivdn ; but they bring it in love 
and translate it into our languages and lay it before 
us, and say, ' Look at it, read it, examine it, and see if 
it is not good.' Of one thing I am convinced : do 



INTRODUCTORY 7 

what we will, oppose it as we may, it is the Christian's 
Bible that will sooner or later work the regeneration 
of our land." 

Thus, as Dr. A. T. Pierson observes, " Medical 
Missions are, not only destructive of superstition and 
false religion, but they are constructive of a new faith 
and life. Body and soul and spirit have all been 
poisoned and diseased by sin, and redemption must 
bring salvation to the whole man. We cannot sever 
sin from sickness, and we cannot but feel that there 
is more than a link of language between holiness and 
wholeness, or health." 

Mackay, of Uganda, was right when he said, " All 
genuine Missionary work must be in the highest sense 
a healing work." 

It may not be generally known that we in Great 
Britain are indebted to Americans for the idea of 
Medical Missions. In 1841, Dr. Parker, a Medical 
Missionary in connection with the American Board, 
when on his way home from China passed through 
Edinburgh, and while there was the guest of a well- 
known m.edical man. Dr. Abercrombie. He told him 
of the work in which he had been engaged, what 
a power it was, and testified to the value of Medical 
Missionary work in China. Dr. Abercrombie became 
so interested in the statements made that he called 
together a number of Christian medical men, and they 
talked over the matter. The result was that the Edin- 
burgh Medical Missionary Society was formed, which 
has trained and sent forth scores of well-equipped men 
to the Home and Foreign Field. Since that time the 
wave of interest in foreign Medical Missionary work 
has spread throughout the whole of the Evangelical 
Church of Christ, and risen higher and higher, until, 
at the Student Volunteer Convention, in i8g8, Mr. 
Douglas Thornton stated that, among British students, 
those preparing for medical service had so greatly 
increased in number that the majority of the Student 



8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Volunteer body were now studying medicine. It is 
well known what proportions this branch of work is 
assuming in the history of the Church Missionary 
Society which, in connection with its Medical Mission 
Auxiliary, has instituted a special Prayer Union called 
"The Order of the Red Cross": its object being to 
quicken prayer, enlist service, and arouse interest in 
this expanding department of foreign service. 

Volumes might be filled with remarkable records 
of Medical Mission triumphs in India, China, Japan, 
Formosa, Siam, and Burmah ; and not alone in 
these great Mission fields, but in Africa, Madagascar, 
Persia, Central Turkey, and Syria, in many parts of 
the continents of America and Europe, and in the 
cities throughout our own land. This little book is 
but a black-and-white sketch that may serve to show 
some of the deep, dire need of suffering, Christless 
heathendom, and some of the glorious results achieved 
among its neglected women by the sanctified skill of 
women Medical Missionaries. 

No student of Medical Missions will challenge the 
statement that Medical Missions are the most impor- 
tant manifestation at the present time in the whole 
world of the practical spirit of Christianity. A. Mission 
Hospital is a moral text-book which can be read and 
appreciated by the most illiterate. And the Medical 
Mission work is a golden key that is to-day unlocking 
many of the most strongly barred fortresses of Satan. 
Look at some of the Mahommedan cities of Syria, 
Persia, or India. The people are steeped in bigotry. 
Mothers teach their children to hate the name 
"Christian." The very mention of Christ as the 
Son of God is the signal for a burst of indignation 
and a storm of curses, followed by more tangible 
opposition. Yet even such hostility melts away before 
the magical presence of a healer in their midst. " The 
foreign woman's instruments are good, her doctrine 
must be good also," is the simple, natural logic of a, 



INTRODUCTORY 9 

grateful heart. A Medical Missionary, man or woman, 
can collect an audience wherever he or she may be, an 
audience whose suspicion is disarmed, since they 
recognize a friend and helper. The doctor's words, 
which are full of the gravest issues as regards life, 
health, and suffering, can scarcely fail to carry some 
weight when the subjects of Life Eternal and soul- 
sickness are being dealt with. In fact, we ma> safely 
assert that for the opening of new districts to Christian 
influence, and for breaking down obstacles to Gospel 
teaching, no agency can compare with that which 
meets and touches human souls in their deepest need 
through the Avenue of Pain, at the crisis when they 
stand between Life and Death. To the woman-doctor 
comes the little slave-girl almost murdered, the child- 
1-ess wife whose husband is about to discard her ; the 
thirteen-year-old daughter-in-law whose mother-in-law 
has beaten her eye out ; and the child whose poor 
little, crushed feet, inflamed and suppurating with 
decaying bones, appeal to her from the cruel bandages. 
They pour into her sympathetic ear the story of their 
lives. They will tell her what they will tell no one 
else in all the world of their sorrows and pains ; they 
will allow her to do what they will allow no one else to 
do, and they will listen to the Gospel from her lips. 
It is an egregious mistake to suppose that to open 
doors that the Gospel may follow is the province of 
medicine. The physician, especially the woman 
physician, does open doors indeed, but she walks 
through them herself into the most inaccessible strong- 
hold of heathenism — the home — taking the Gospel 
with her. Called to the inmost recesses of harem and 
zenana to take pity On mother or child, the woman 
Missionar}' doctor comes as the first streak of God's 
pure sunlight which permeates those polluted prisons ; 
as the lowly yet true herald of that Sun of Righteous- 
ness risen with healing on His wings. Her tenderness 
and sympathy are a revelation to those whose soulg 



lo BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

and bodies have alike been crushed and tortured by 
nameless cruelties and barbarities. To her is given, 
we say it reverently, the unveiling of the Face of a 
God of Love, in the light of Whose Countenance the 
shadow of death flees away. 

It would be invidious, did space allow, to individ- 
ualize by name the members of the noble army of 
healers who have gone forth ; but our object, after 
portraying the need, is to draw special attention to the 
part assigned to women workers in this great field, 
and then to sketch in detail the ministries of lady 
doctors, medical workers, and trained nurses sent to 
India, China, and Ceylon by the Church of England 
Zenana Missionary Society. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that while America sent forth 
the two pioneers among women physicians,* the first 
fully-qualified lady to go from Great Britain to India 
(in 1880) was Dr. Fanny J. Butler, L.K.Q. C.P.I, and 
L.M., of the C.E.Z.M.S. As introductory to this brief 
record of women's Medical Missionary work as carried 
on to-day in some forty-four C.E.Z.M.S. Hospitals 
and Dispensaries, it is fitting that we should give, 
at least, an outline of the life-labours of this devoted 
servant of God, whose special field of service was 
Kashmir. 

Dr. William Elmslie was the first Medical Mission- 
ary to set foot in that beautiful valley called by 
some the " Garden of God." And it was his 
appeal for women's Medical Missions that determined 
Miss Butler's missionary longings in the direction of 
full medical equipment. Accepted by the Indian 
male Normal School and Instruction Society, t Fanny 
Butler became the first enrolled student of the 

*Di-. Clara A. Swain, who went to India in 1869, and Dr. 
Lucinda L. Coombs, who entered China in 1873, both of the 
American Methodist Episcopal Church. 

|Since divided into two sections, viz., C.E.Z.M.S. and Z.B. 
M.M, 



INTRODUCTORY ii 

Women's School of Medicine in 1874, having passed 
second in the PreHminary Arts Examination out of 123 
candidates, 119 of whom were men. At her L.M. 
examination in Dubhn (King's and Queen's College 
of Physicians), she was told by one of the professors 
that her paper was the best he had ever had from any 
candidate. Thus equipped, in 1880 she went to India, 
and was stationed, first at Jabalpur, and next at 
Bhagulpur in the Central Provinces, where she had 
the charge of two Dispensaries and treated thousands 
of patients annually. Returning from her first fur- 
lough, in 1888, she accepted an appointment to begin 
medical work among the women of Kashmir. Rent- 
ing a little house in the centre of Srinagar, the chief 
city of the valley, she opened a Dispensary, where, 
during the first year, five thousand patients attended. 
Soon a Hospital became a necessary adjunct to this 
ever-growing work, and a little house was thus utilised, 
capable of housing six patients. But as the native 
Government would not permit European Missionaries 
to reside in the city, in-patient work on any extensive 
scale was practically prohibited. It was then that 
Miss Butler's indomitable and tactful energy was 
displayed which finally overcame prejudice and 
obstruction, with the result that full permission was 
granted to purchase ground for erecting, not only a 
Hospital and Dispensary, but also a Mission House. 
But, alas ! the brave doctor did not see even the 
foundation stone of the new building laid, for the 
strain of never-ceasing, always increasing "practice," 
in its highest sense, was too great. During seven 
months and a half, the new cases amounted to over 
3,000, and the attendances to 8,832. During the 
same period there had also been 75 in-patients, and 
about 550 operations, mostly minor, had been per- 
formed. She was closely following in the steps of 
her Master. "There are indications," says a thought- 
ful writer, " that Christ's miraculous cures must have 



12 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

cost Him an expenditure of nervous sympathy and 
emotion, which imparts a deep pathos to the saying of 
St. Matthew, ' Himself took our infirmities and bare 
our sicknesses.' He was literally mobbed by patients 
who left Him leisure neither to eat nor to rest. So 
it was with this " Doctor Miss Sahiba." Mrs. Isabella 
Bird Bishop, to whose generosity the building of the 
new Hospital was due, and who visited this pioneer 
in her isolated home just before her death, says, 
" It was a terrible sight to see the way in which the 
women pressed upon her at the Dispensary door, which 
was kept by two men outside and another inside. The 
crush was so great as sometimes to overpower the men 
and precipitate the women bodily into the consulting 
room. The evil odours, the heat, the insanitary condi- 
tion in which Miss Butler did her noble work of heal- 
ing and telling of the Eiealer of souls were, I believe, 
the cause of the sacrifice of her life." 

All that was mortal of Dr. Fanny Butler was laid 
to rest beneath the shade of a large chenar tree in 
the little cemetery on October 28th, i88g. The same 
little boat, and boatmen, which had so often taken 
her to work in her Hospital, bore her quietly down the 
river to her resting-place. The native servants begged 
the honour of bearing her from the boat to the grave. 
" We have eaten her salt," they said, " and no other 
arms must bear her." 

The call for consecrated women physicians has been 
responded to, and is being heard. During this last 
decade, twelve fully-qualified lady doctors, true Medical 
Missionaries, have been sent forth by the C.E.Z.M.S. 
into the foreign field. And if this little book shall be 
the means of leading only one more of Great Britain's 
gifted daughters to dedicate herself to the noblest, and 
perhaps divinest, calling for Christian womanhood, 
it will not have been written in vain. 



CHAPTER I 



BETIVEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



" Even the most cultured heathen nations of antiquity seem 
to have been lacking in those refined sensibihties which are 
so distinctively the insignia of Christianity. The heart of the 
world, when untouched by Christian sentiment, has always been 
singularly callous to the appeal of weakness and suffering. The 
fact that this is due, in many instances, to ignorance, or is the 
result of misdirected efforts prompted by superstitious notions, 
while, in a measure, it excuses the fault, does not alleviate the 
miseries of the victims." — Dr. A. T. Pierson- 

" Why they have never known the 

way before, 
I know not ; but I ask, dear Lord, 

that Thou 
Would'st lead them now I 
Why in the hard and thorny path 

they pass, 
Unloved, uncomforted, with none 

to bless, 
In living death, I know not ; but 

spare Thou 
And lead them on I " 



Here in England there is 
one doctor for every seven 
hundred people. In India, 
even now. Government ser- 
vants included, there is only 
one to every 500,000 of the 
immense population ; while 
in China, yet more appall- 
ing fact, there is only one 

13 




A Native Musician, 



14 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

qualified and registered doctor to every 2,000,000 of 
its teeming people. 

In India, the total number of deaths every year is 
between five and six millions. The vast majority have 
received no real medical attendance whatever in their 
last illness. Though the old system of charms and 
incantations is passing away, though fewer cruel 
remedies are applied, the hakim, the priest-doctor, 
the native quack, is their only resource in the case of 
vast multitudes. And it must be remembered that, 
as the wave of Western civilization, education, and 
science advances, it reaches first the men and benefits 
them, while as yet it scarcely touches the women in 
the seclusion of harem and zenana. Severe conven- 
tional rules of society exclude their participation in 
public progress and boons. But at the same time, 
in spite of improvement and all that is being done 
under the British Government, British philanthropy, 
and British Christian Missions, it is true, as estimated 
by Sir William Moore, that "not five per cent, of the 
population is reached by the present system of medical 
aid. Even in great cities, where there are Hospitals 
and Dispensaries, more than half the people die 
unattended in sickness either by educated doctor or 
native quack." " If this is the case in the cities," 
writes Dr. Wanless, "what must be the condition 
in the 566,000 villages, each with a population of 
less than 500, not to mention large towns of 
1,000 to 5,000 inhabitants, without even a native 
doctor ? " : 

Who can possibly gauge the amount of suffering 
and anguish, unrelieved if not aggravated by unscien- 
tific skill, which lies behind those figures ? Let us lift 
the veil that curtains from our view some scenes 
which might well chill our life-blood and thrill our 
soul. Only some scenes. Others are too awful for 
refined Christian womanhood to contemplate, and 
must be omitted from these pages. Yet, let it be 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 15 

remembered that, whatever can be told is but the 
fringe, the outskirt, of the story as it might be 
depicted. 

We will turn first to our Indian sisters. As we 
have elsewhere remarked, the sadness which surrounds 
the life of the Indian woman in health is intensified a 
hundred times when illness and suffering come.* 

In the villages of India the most elementary rules 
of sanitation are completely ignored, and the very pro- 
prieties of hygienic living are totally disregarded. 
Water for drinking purposes will be drawn from river 
or tank used as public baths. Sir Richard Temple 
states that impure water in India has produced more 
physical mischief than any cause whatsoever, and 
perhaps as much mischief as all other causes put 
together could produce. In 1894 the Health Officer of 
Calcutta expressed his opinion that the high infantile 
death rate was due to the ignorance of parents and the 
insanitary condition of the houses. " Such details," 
says a lady doctor on the field, " as no furniture, 
mud floors, dirty clothes, &c., have become so familiar 
that they cease to impress me. Of course, too, the 
doors are so low that even short people have to stoop 
to enter." 

There are few Indian homes of any size without 
some sufferers in them. Besides chronic cases, fevers 
and other diseases are so common that a large house 
seldom has a clean bill of health. It would seem that, 
if any course is more foolish and useless than another, 
it is the one most likely to be adopted by the invalid or 
her friends. " The idea of making an invalid comfort- 
able," says a Missionary, "would never enter their 
thoughts unaided. She finds her way to some dark 
corner, wraps her head in a dirty blanket — one wonders 
how she breathes ! — and groans aloud, while all around 
the family sit chattering with the neighbours and 
friends who have called to make inquiries. If the 
*See " Our Suffering Sisters," in Behind tJic PardaJi. 



i6 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



disease threatens to last long, a horrid old woman is 
called in, who looks wise, doses her with herbs, 
shampoos her a little, and, having been well paid, goes 
off. The patient being no better the next morning, 
the doctor is changed. This one applies some nasty 
compound with a sickening smell to parts which 
are supposed to be affected, and also pockets a fee ; 
and so on through a round of remedies, whilst the 
patient, nothing bettered, grows worse." 

The universal Oriental belief in evil spirits is rife 
with the women of India. Among the waiting crowd 
at a Dispensary may be heard a snapping of fingers. 
Someone is indulging in a yawn, and by this trick 
she hopes to scare away any evil spirit that might 




A Sacred Writing Charm. 

find its way down her throat as she gapes ! Almost 
everyone wears one or more charms, the most popular 
kind being a small piece of paper with words inscribed 
on it by a devotee or religious teacher. This is folded 
squarely, tied up and sewn in cloth, and attached by a 
string to the neck, arm, or leg. A large portion of 
Hindu worship resolves itself into propitiation of evil 
spirits ; and one of the crudest forms of heathenism is 
that which deifies disease, attributing small-pox and 
similar complaints to a goddess, addressed and wor- 
shipped as "mother." Numerous shrines dedicated to 
the goddess of small-pox and cholera, scattered over 
India, testify to the firm belief held that special 
deities preside over these epidemics. During an 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 17 

outbreak of these complaints in the Tinnevelly dis- 
trict in 1892 it was given out that the goddess had a 
thorn in her toe, and until it was out the epidemic 
would not abate. The remedy was to make offerings 
at her shrine with great tom-toming. It is the 
women who, in their ignorance and with their fervent 
religious instinct, cling most tenaciously to super- 
stitions and are the firmest believers in demonology. 
This belief is nourished by the teachings of theii-/za^/;ns, 
or priest-doctors, who may be seen repeating verses 
out of their sacred books to cure someone v/ho has 
been bitten by a scorpion. Nerve diseases, especially, 
are considered to be caused by the presence of an evil 
spirit that must be driven out, often by the most brutal 
treatment, which usually succeeds in driving out the 
spirit of the person by death. In one house visited 
by a South Indian Missionary a woman passed away 
who had been the victim of ill-treatment and neglect. 
Her spirit was supposed still to inhabit the 
room, and lest she should come through and wreak 
vengeance on her relatives, they not only fastened 
up the apartment with double locks, but every 
crevice in doors and windows was plastered up 
with mud. 

A C.E.Z. Missionary, called to visit a Zenana 
patient, found a girl of about seventeen lying on the 
floor, in the most wretchedly filthy state imagin- 
able, apparently dying of fever. Some five or six 
women filled the tiny room, the atmosphere of which 
was almost unbearable. The first thing to be done 
was to get these women out of the wa}', especially as 
they refused to touch the patient because of cere- 
monial impurity. It was with great difficulty that the 
lady doctor secured some hot water to bathe her 
patient, and that she was permitted to place the poor 
little sufferer on a bed. There was a bed waiting for 
her when she was better, but it was contrary to custom 
that she should use it at first. The girl's life was saved, 

c 



i8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

but the incident is only one of hundreds taking place 
every day in high class Zenana life. 

Callousness born of a dismal fatalism and ignorance, 
the outcome of captivity, reign supreme behind the 
pardah. Not long ago a lady Missionary, summoned 
to a Zenana, found her patient, a young bride in her 
teens, slowly dying. On a bedstead about a foot from 
the bare floor, with a few rags about and beneath her, 
in a damp, dimly-lighted room devoid of any furniture, 
and without a touch of sympathy from a woman's 
hand or voice, life was ebbing away. Every time she 
fainted, the old mother-in-law would hasten off to 
cry, " At last she's dead ! She's dead ! " And when the 
last moment came, no one but the Missionary doctor 
was beside the lifeless body. Every one of the 
noisy, helpless women had run off. 

Most of the medical and surgical treatment in 
Zenanas is done by a set of ignorant, low caste 
women who are called dates, and often their work is 
simply murderous. " Only this summer," says Dr. 
Grace Adams, of Dera Ghazi Khan, " I saw two cases 
treated surgically by women barbers ; the most fright- 
ful incisions were made, and the case was then left to 
nature — and dirt ! No dressings or protection of any 
kind." 

Dr. A, F. M. Cornall (z.b.m.m.) at Patna, says : 
" One medicine will be tried and then another ; finally 
a lidkiin is called in who prescribes entirely from 
hearsay, or from a hand extended from behind the 
sacred pardah. His medicines proving unavailing or 
increasing the malady, some Innani itij, or Greek 
medicine, is tried. This, too, proving useless, it may 
be that at last the English " Doctor Miss Sahiha " 
is called in, and then, bit by bit, the tale is elicited of 
all the treatments and remedies the poor sufferer has 
undergone, sufficient, most of them, to have caused 
the entire suffering." 

Numberless mothers and babes fall victims to the 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



'9 



unspeakable neglect and nameless barbarities practised 
upon them in their hour of peril. 

The following account of the treatment of women 
is by an Indian princess of the highest caste, who 
describes what happened to herself. She writes : — 

" It is the custom of our people at a confinement 
that the mother is isolated from the family. A small 
thatched hut, about 6ft. square, with no windows 
and no air holes, is constructed. The floor is of 
mud, and in one corner of the house is placed a fire, 
which burns day and night, to keep out evil spirits. 
In the hottest day, when the temperature is as high 
as 1 10*^, the fire must still be kept on. The door, 
which is made of mats, is kept fast closed. 



Ch.ATini 




" When a poor mother sees this house put up, 
terrors take hold of her, for she feels as if her days were 
numbered. Many are suffocated ; and the house may 
take fire, and the inmate, unable to make her escape, 
perishes in the flames. Such is our custom. No 
relative ever may come near on pain of losing caste. 

" In such a house I was made to remain several 
days. My agony was intense. I screamed for help, 
but no one would come near me. I lay on the damp 
clay, with an old mat under me, and, except some 
water, thrown on the floor to wash it, by the nurse, 



20 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

an old woman, nothing was done for me. It was very 
long before all was over. Through the old woman's 
carelessness I was at death's door. Oh! how I did cry 
to the one great God to hear me, to save me, to 
look on me. With all my strength I called on Him, 
and He did answer me, and I knew there was a God, 
and that my father was right. My brother told the 
woman to leave me alone to die. No one would come 
near me. Although I was almost suffocated, no one 
would open the door for me. With much effort I 
pushed the door open. The fresh air revived me a 
little. M}- mother saw the open door and shouted to 
the old woman to shut the door, to prevent the evil 
spirits carrying away the child. I would not allow 
the door to be shut, and said that the evil spirits would 
not come near me. I often told my mother that our 
religion must be false, for my child was living, and 
the devils had not taken her away. I had no faith 
in our Hindu religion." 

One more story may suffice to show the bitter 
need of India's shut-in and suffering women. A 
young wife, whose children had all died at their 
birth, was said to be very ill, and the Missionary was 
summoned. She found the patient lying in great pain 
on a hard, comfortless cot, faint and hysterical, and 
surrounded by a clamorous crowd of women, all 
talking at once and advising all sorts of remedies. 
The girl's mother was weeping bitterly, and the whole 
scene was calculated to turn the brain of a strong 
person, much more that of an invalid. Mrs. Sorabji, 
for she it was, insisted on being left alone with her 
patient, whom she laid upon a soft mattress, and 
soothed with food, kind, calming words, and a prayer, 
as she knelt beside her. The result was the girl 
rallied ; her baby was born and survived, and the 
Missionary earned the life-long gratitude of the whole 
family, who could hardly believe that she had used no 
magical arts. 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 2t 

The utter disregard of infection by the Hindu is 
notorious. Measles, ophthalmia, small-pox, and 
cholera are regarded in the same light as ordinary 
fever. The idea of separation never seems to occur 
to them. If the rest of the family have not had the 
disease they may as well have it now. If they do, it 
was "written upon their forehead "long before. "I 
dare not say," says the author of Light and Shade 
in Zenana Missionary Life, "how often I have had to 
send away from school little girls simply covered with 
disease, and by doing so have surprised, not only the 
parents, but also the rest of the pupils, who saw no 
harm in sitting beside them." It is not uncommon, 
during a small-pox epidemic, to see patients carried 
through the streets by a procession of relatives and 
friends to intercede with the small-pox goddess. Some 
few years ago an outbreak of this scourge took place 
at Bhagalpur. Few houses seemed to escape. Still, 
the lady Missionary was not applied to, except in the 
case of an infant only a few days old. His mother 
was sitting on a bed close by, covered with the rash, 
and children were running in and out of the room at 
will ! After this it is not surprising to know that 
any urgent recommendation to burn infected garments 
is met by an incredulous smile, as much as to say, 
" Does the Miss Sahiba think we are such fools as 
to burn good clothes ? " 

Perhaps Ctiina presents more physical suffering 
from want of medical knowledge than any other 
portion of the globe. Scattered here and there are 
homes and asylums for aged, orphans, and the in- 
capable, but the Chinese code of charity is based 
mainly on the idea of accumulating merit as the 
reward of good works. Hence, side by side with 
these institutions, the most appalling callousness and 
indifference to suffering exists, hardly to be matched 
in any other part of the earth. From dread of con- 
tact with loathsome diseases, or from superstitious 



22 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

fear of intervention by evil spirits, cases of cruel 
neglect abound. The sick, if homeless, are transported 
from doorway to doorway, since a Chinese subject is 
held responsible by Chinese law for the funeral 
expenses of a stranger dying at his gate, and he is 
also liable to blackmail under such suspicious circum- 
stances. Chinese lack of sympathy is demonstrated 
by their attitude to those who are physically de- 
formed. The blind in one eye, the deaf, the bald, the 
cross-eyed are all persons to be avoided, for they are 
looked upon as reaping punishment for some secret 
sin. Their peculiarity is employed as a description in 
such a way as to attract to it public attention. 
" Great brother with the pock-marks," says an 
assistant in a Dispensary to a patient, " from what 
village do you come ? " " When the eyes look 
asquint the heart is askew," will be the loud observa- 
tion made in the hearing of one whose eyes are 
afflicted with strabismus. 

It is said that the daily mortality is not less 
than 33,000. The only remedy in times of plague 
or pestilence appears to be to organize a series of 
Buddhist services to expel the evil spirits supposed to 
be the cause of the calamity ; or, as occurred some 
little time ago in Hinghwa city, they will roof in the 
whole of the chief street with cloth stretched from 
roof to roof, lighted lanterns being hung from bamboo 
poles. Naturally, this proceeding made matters worse 
l3y excluding sunlight and air ; but it was supposed to 
conciliate the devils. 

When illness overtakes the Chinese woman — and, 
indeed, her life may be said to be one of prolonged 
suffering, more or less — it is a sign that the spirits are 
displeased with her. A sort of wizard is called in, 
who, by a tremendous clanging and banging of gongs, 
endeavours for hours to drive the evil spirit away. 
Should the poor sufferer seem likely to die, she (like 
her Indian sister in similar circumstances) is removed 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 23 

from her bed to the floor, where she is left to die alone, 
as it would be unlucky for anybody to come into close 
contact with one who had evidently so displeased the 
spirits. 

China is notorious for the neglect of proper sanita- 
tion. " No matter," says a distinguished American 
Missionary of twenty-two years' standing, " how long 
one has lived in China, one remains in a condition of 
mental suspense, unable to decide that most interesting 
question so often raised. Which is the filthiest city in 
the Empire ? To a foreign observer it is a standing 
problem why the various diseases, which ignorance and 
defiance of natural laws invite, do not exterminate the 
Chinese altogether.'** 

The condition of the streets, in town and village 
alike, baffles description. Refuse of every description 
from each house is cast out upon the common high- 
way, quite regardless of the general public welfare. In 
the house dirt reigns supreme. The walls are begrimed 
with the smoke of generations, and neither man nor 
woman will attempt to displace it, since, in the first 
place, white-washing is tabooed because white is an 
unlucky colour, and secondly, too much displacing of 
furniture and sweeping of corners is disturbing and 
worrying to the evil spirits (with which every house is 

* " Perhaps were it not for the abundant use of the fan, so 
common amongst them, even the Chinese might not be able to 
live in their crowded streets through the severe summer heat. Its 
constant use tends much to the comfort and, therefore, to the 
health of the people. They use the fan, not as Europeans, in a 
quick and hurried way, which requires some exertion and soon 
wearies, but with a quiet, uninterrupted motion, which, while dis- 
persing the heated air and serving the purpose of a refrigerator, 
causes no fatigue. 

"As tending to foster a healthy condition, the people are much 
in the open air. Their employments necessitate this ; their houses, 
besides, are put together very loosely, and are thus well ventilated, 
and their shops and work-rooms have no fronts, so that those 
engaged ni business are literally in the open air all tlie day long." 
— IV. Lockhart, Esq., F.R.C.S., F.R.G.S. 



24 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

peopled!), and bound to be followed with disastrous 
results. It has been well said that the Chinese will 
never be a clean people till they become a Christian 
people. 

It is easy to understand that the homes of the 
women and children are hotbeds of disease. The idea 
of bathing their persons is as repugnant to them as the 
cleansing of their houses. Odours that would bring a 
pestilence in England are endured without a sniff of 
discontent ; stagnant water and vile-smelling drains 
beside her "hall-door" do not trouble the house-wife, 
or cause her to protest. No wonder that, as surely as 
summer comes round, dysentery, fever, and cholera 
invade their houses, and children are left motherless, 
or mothers childless ! Yet the survivors will attribute 




such premature deaths to "the will of Heaven," 
steadily ignoring that they are the natural results of 
their own uncleanly habits. Occasionally the}' are 
pleased to refer it to the presence of the foreign 
Missionary. " One never-to-be-forgotten summer," 
says Dr. Annie Kearn, " Soochow was swept by 
cholera as by a mighty threshing machine. Hardly a 
house in all the city escaped. Night after night saw 
an endless succession of processions, designed to 
appease or to frighten off the cholera gods or demons. 
The canals were great, intersecting lines of light and 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 25 

noise, for, in some way, the Chinese have got hold of 
the truth that the cause of cholera lies in the water ; 
hence nearly all their racket is being kept up on the 
canals. One memorable night we found ourselves un- 
wittingly heading a land procession, and several days 
later we heard that the sudden excess of deaths, which 
occured at that time, was due to the unfortunate 
accident of the presence of foreigners among them." 

In a land of abounding poverty like China, where 
the women and children are treated as beasts of 
burden, the poor have no time to be sick. Ailments of 
wife or child are apt to be treated by the head of the 
household as of no consequence, and are constantly 
allowed to run into incurable maladies, because " there 
was no time to attend to them," or the man "could 
not afford it." 

Small-pox, which we in Western lands regard as 
a terrible scourge, is so constant a visitor in China 
that the people never expect to be free from its ravages, 
and, like other Orientals, utterly fail to appreciate the 
foreigner's fear of contagion. Yet it is curious to note 
that typhoid fever is as much dreaded as scarlet fever 
is in Great Britain, and, through fear of infection, the 
sufferer is left entirely unattended. 

As an instance of the low value put upon the life 
of a woman, the following incident may be recorded. 
A lady Missionary, called on to treat a poor, sick 
woman in Canton, begged the husband to let his wife 
have the good room in the house, and to give the poor 
room to the big buffalo. He objected: "If I put my 
wife in that room, and my buffalo in the inner room, 
the buffalo may get sick as my wife has got sick." The 
lady replied, " Yet your wife will die it she stays there. 
Give her a good room." "But," persisted the man, 
"if I give the water cow, this great buffalo, the poor 
room, and he gets sick, he will die; and it costs more 
to buy a Abater cow than it does a woman." 

This brief sketch of the sick and suffering would 



26 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

not be complete without some reference to the dying, 
and the treatment to which they are subjected while 
they lie still between life and death. Familiar as 
some of the details may be to our readers, we cannot 
forbear quoting from those now at work on the field, 
who have been and continue to be eye-witnesses 
under varying conditions of that saddest of all sights 
— a heathen deathbed. 

It is considered of paramount importance that the 
Hindus living within easy distance of the sacred river 
Ganges should be carried there when in extremis that 
they may breathe their last within sight of its sin- 
cleansing tide. If this be neglected, the dying persons 
and their relatives incur unpardonable guilt. As soon, 
therefore, as it is discovered that the patient is sinking, 
he or she is hurried off on a chdrdpie to the river brink. 

The Kohirdj, or family physician, alone is relied 
upon to state decisively the imminence of dissolution, 
and it is terrible to think upon what multitudes of 
human beings these men, who for the most part are 
ignorant quacks, pass sentence of death after mere 
examination of the pulse. We may safely say that 
thousands would recover if they remained in their 
homes, and were carefully nursed. 

As soon as the Kobirdj declares that the disease will 
quickly prove fatal, a small procession, composed 
chiefly of men relatives, accompany the sick person to 
the river, who, on arrival there, is exhorted to look 
upon the sacred tide, and to breathe its magic name. 
Mud and water are then put upon the forehead of the 
dying, and also forced into the mouth. It is a happy 
thing for the sufferer if death quickly ensue ; for if not, 
the Kohirdj having miscalculated the time, the end is 
hastened by frequent immersion in the water. But, 
in many instances, the dying man, or woman, or child, 
has to wait many days before life ebbs out. The 
utmost that is done by way of consideration for these 
hapless sufferers is sometimes to erect a comfortless 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 27 

shelter at the ghat, where, after death, the funeral 
pyre will be lit, the body consumed, and the ashes 
cast on Mother Ganges' bosom to be carried to 
the sea. 

Miss Brook, of Sukkur, has recently sent home the 
following pathetic account of a dying Sindi patient, 
which we give verbatim. She says : — 

" I had been visiting, for some time, a poor woman 
who was very ill with chronic bronchitis. 

" She would have medicine for a few days, and 
then stop, and then again ask for some, but I continued 
to visit her occasionally. One day I found her in a 
dying state, I saw she could not live many days, and 
spoke to her, as often before, of Jesus, and told her 
plainly that she could not live long. I asked if I 
should pray for her. She assented, and folded her 
hands whilst I did so. Then I asked her to pray for 
herself, and with great difficulty, for she could hardly 
speak, she asked God to forgive her and save her. 

" When I went the next day, they had (according 
to the Hindu custom, which forbids a Hindu dying on 
a bed) placed her on the floor to die. They had been 
bathing her with the so-called ' holy ' water of the river 
Indus, and a man was sitting on a cot, reading in a 
sing-song voice, from their sacred book. Many people 
were in the room, exclaiming, at intervals, as loudly as 
they could, ' Wall Guru I Wall Guru ! ' (' Oh, Teacher ! 
Oh, Teacher ! '). They motioned to me to sit down. I 
asked them to let her lie down, and, as she had to die 
to allow her to die in peace. It is so dreadfully sad to 
see how they knock the dying about, lift them up 
roughly, make them sit, propped up, pull their hands 
about, make them touch various things, and go through 
their heathen ceremonies which they consider are 
necessary, at the time of death, in order to land them 
safely in the next life. And yet, poor things, they have 
not much faith in these ceremonies, for they afterwards 
turned to me and asked : ' Where do you think she has 



28 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

gone ? Has she gone to heaven ? She died a painful 
death, but she was very good,' &c., &c. 

" When I asked them to let her die in peace, and 
allow me to make her comfortable, she heard my voice, 
opened her eyes, and very feebly put out her hand, try- 
ing to beckon me nearer to her. Her son said : ' She 
is beckoning to you,' and made way for me to go close 
beside her. The woman herself could not speak then, 
but I was able to talk to her and again point her 
to Christ, and as I talked she grew more restful. The 
others, after they heard the name of Jesus, kept saying 
to her : ' Say ]\'aJi Guru ! Say Wah Gum ! ' But she 
could not, or would not, say it. It was a strange 
scene. They, thrusting at her the names of their Hindu 
gods ' Siri Ram ! Siri Krishna ! ' &c., and I, in the quiet 
pauses, telling her of Jesus and His love, and of what 
He had done for her. I stayed some time, for she liked 
to have me there. Every now and then she would 
open her eyes and look towards me, and so her soul re- 
turned to God Who gave it." 

A thrilling description of a Mahommedan woman's 
death-bed is given by an eye-witness, a medically 
trained Indian lady: — 

*' A Mahommedan woman is taken very ill after the 
birth of her child. The Medical Missionary is called, 
who not only prescribes for her body, but gives a 
message from God for her soul, to which the friends 
do not object, as they are old friends of the Missionary, 
and are very fond of her. 

"But alas! two doses of the medicine do not cure 
the patient; so they consult, and decide to wait only 
another day. The next morning the bottle of medicine 
is found almost full. ' Hai !* Bihi-ji, what is this ? 
Why did you not give your sister-in-law medicine 
every hour ? ' The daughter answers, * It is very heat- 
ing. Is there any quinine in it ? ' ' No, there is no 
quinine ; you must give her her medicine every hour.' 

* Hai ■ is an exclamation of sorrow. 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 29 

They assure the Medical Missionary that they will if 
only she will change it. All the women follow the lady 
to the door, and wish to know if the patient will live ; 
and on being assured that there is great hope, they 
promise to give the medicine properly, and nourish- 
ment too ; but, alas ! again only two doses are given, 
and at night the patient gets worse. No wonder; for 
she lies in a dark, little room, with a large fire in an 
earthen oven by her bed. There are only two doors, 
and they both open into similar rooms, but at present 
they are tightly shut; and, by the poor sufferer's bed, 
half a dozen women sit smoking two huqqas*. The men 
are awakened to run for the doctor, but first a con- 
sultation, lasting for nearly two hours, takes place, as 
to which doctor is best. At last one is decided upon. 
He comes and gives his directions, but little does he 
know whether they will be carried out ! He does not 
change the diet, but orders, as the Miss Sahiba did, 
soup and milk. (They cannot read the prescription ; 
probably it is almost the same fever mixture.) But 
they exclaim the former is so heating, and the latter 
will produce catarrh. How many doctors have they 
had ? Who can tell ? In despair they say,' Oh, let us 
call the first one again. All these doctors take a fee; 
the Medical Missionary does not insist on one.' So 
they go to call her again. We must consider. Is it 
right to go ? The woman must be dying, but we can 
give her some message of love. They are told they 
have behaved very badly in going from one doctor to 
another ; but the answer is, ' Do, do forgive us ; we 
were in such a gliabralidt.] You are merciful — you 
will forgive us.' ' Blessed are the merciful.' We think 
of that, and feel we must go. But what is the old 
Mai\ doing? The doctor had said the patient ought 

*Huqqa means pipe. 

\GJiabraJidt means state of restless excitement. 

I Respectful terni for old women, meaning mother, 



30 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

to be fomented, so the old Mai is fomenting her. 
' Oh ! the water is luke-warm ; this will do more harm 
than good.' On questioning, we find out that for three 
days no nourishment has been given, except a few 
spoonfuls of water which has been blessed by a Pir (a 
holy man who is supposed to have attained to such a 
height of holiness that he knows everything in every- 
body's heart, and his blessing is sure to do good). All 
bewail, and tell all that they have done, but without 
relief. One old sage replies, ' Children, when the end 
of human life comes, the Angel of Death sits by and 
prevents anything from doing good.' Upon which 
the}^ all cry and wail again ; so the patient looks 
round and says, Khair hai (It is well); meaning to 
assure them that she is all right and fearing nothing. 
They are strictly told to give her nourishment, as 
well as medicine, all through the night. They assure 
us that they will do so, but also say, ' Oh ! if she 
would only live we would trouble her to take it, but 
what is the good if she is going to die ? ' They are 
told that we must not despair of life, but do our utmost. 
And we add, ' Christ has promised to do all for us; w^e 
Christians pray to Him.' The answer is, ' Our prophet 
is great.' 

" Next morning, alas ! it is too evident that the 
patient is dying of exhaustion. The room in which 
she lies, also the next one, and the court-yard, which 
is rather larger than they are generally, are full of 
women, and some men too (near relations). Her own 
husband, who holds a good Government post in an 
out-station, has not \-et arrived ; all are expecting him. 
There are more than fifty women present, and between 
them a good many linqqas going round. All pass some 
sad remark and weep now and then. 

"Let us look at the patient. She recognizes the 
Miss SaJiiba, and a little gleam of hope comes to us as 
some stimulant is given. The patient shuts her eyes 
and we hope she is going to sleep. In the next room 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 31 

a blind man is sitting, and shouting portions of the 
Quran in Arabic*.) No sooner does she shut her eyes, 
than about a dozen women spring up, stand round 
about her head, bend over her face, shutting out all 
the fresh air (of which there is already a very limited 
supply in the room), and then they shout the Surat-i- 
ycisin in Arabic. (This portion of the Quran has to be 
shouted three times in the ears of a dying person. It 
is a sort of prayer for forgiveness, &c., and if the 
person recovers after this, it is taken as a special 
mark of God's favour that the Almighty has forgiven 
his or her sins, and given life back again.) What 
can the Missionars- do ? Many verses from the the 
Bible come to her mind, which she would like to tell 
the dying woman ; but oh ! the noise, and shouts, and 
wailing, and weeping, render the attempt useless. The 
woman's only daughter seems mad with grief, and 
wails piteously ; but the aunt, who is engaged in shout- 
ing pious ejaculations from the Quran, calls her the 
child of a pig, and orders her not to weep, but to read 
the ydsin. Poor girl, she has no comfort. But what 
has happened to the patient ? Why, of course, she is 
dead — and no wonder! Any person, so exhausted, 
would be smothered by a dozen women bending over 
the head and shouting ! 

"The idea is that, during the departure of the 
spirit from the body, no one must cry, lest the spirit 
should linger longer than is necessary, and increase 
the suffering of the body. But all should read the 
Kalinia] and the ydsin, so that the soul may pass away 
into its appointed place without hindrance. 

"When all feel sure the patient is dead, they 
begin to wail most terribly. Who can comfort them 
when they do not know The Comforter ? The thought 
that comes to one is, ' Surely Mahommedanism is a 

*P'or the benefit of the poor sufferer. 
tWordb from the Oiinl/i. 



32 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

device of the devil ! These people have heard the 
Gospel over and over again, but "the god of this 
world hath blinded their eyes." ' " 

China's daughters are dying too, dying without 
hope. Let us listen to a China Missionary's story: — " 

" Last night I was spending the night eii route at 
Foochow with three other sister Missionaries in our 
little chapel at a busy market town. It was late 
before we lay down, and we were very weary, but the 
place seemed alive with noises, and the sleep I longed 
for would not come. Suddenly, above all other sounds 
and quite close to us, a woman's voice broke forth in a 
bitter, bitter wail, so pathetic, so despairing, it wrung 
my heart. It was quickly followed by another and 
another, other voices mingling, and men adding their 
deeper cries and groans. Now and again the heavy 
thud of a head, as it was banged on the floor or 
wall in expression of grief, could be heard. From the 
few words I could catch, I gathered that some soul — I 
know not whether man, woman, or child — had passed 
away into eternity. 

"I knelt upon my bed and prayed for the poor, 
sorrowing hearts so close to us who were borne down 
with all the blackness of despair caused by the entrance 
of death into a heathen home. Then as I lay down 
again with closed eyes and unutterable pity in my 
heart, I seemed to zee with a sudden flash a scene 
familiar to most of you in the home-land. Crowds 
gathered in Exeter Hall, eager faces lifted towards the 
speakers as they plead again and again for help to 
carry the Gospel to heathen lands, and then the solemn 
hush of prayer, followed by those thousands of voices 
joining in singing, ' A Cry as of Pain.' Oh, could you 
have heard the anguish of that actual cry ringing 
through the night air then, it would have moved you, 
it must have stirred you who read these words to do 
more than just to ' take an interest ' in Mission work, 
' — it would surely have found a response in your hearts, 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 33 

and have drawn you to come out to love these human 
stricken hearts, and to seek to win these lost and 
perishing souls. Oh, my sisters, will you not, before 
God, ask yourselves now, whose fault is it that Despair 
still holds China's millions in its icy grasp, while the 
warm glow of Hope has as yet penetrated into so few, 
so very few hearts ? " 



CHAPTER II 



CALL THE DOCTOR LN 

or 

Native Medical Treatnieut 



''The agonies and soriows which result from the stupid and cruel 
infliction of quackery upon suffering humanity make an awful 
chapter in the daily experiences of mankind." — Dr. Dc/tnis. 



Let us call the native doctor in, 
turning first to the Indian practi- 
tioner, and ask what medical aid is 
being rendered to our suffering 
sisters before the advent of the 
Christian Medical IMissionary. 

At the outset we would freely 
acknowledge that some Hindu 
medical men are able and trust- 
worthy. The British Indian Govern- 
ment has established Medical 
Colleges at Calcutta, Madras, Bom- 
bay, and Lahore. But the great 
mass of the native practitioners have 
not yet been taught anything of 
European science, and have not the 
slightest knowledge of their art, even 
according to their own authors. 

It is a question whether to be 

unattended is not a milder fate for 

Mahommedan than to be ministered 




The Shlf Khana, 
Srinagar. 

the Hindu or 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 35 

to by the average native luikiui or priest-doctor, 
whose least harmful remedy is to repeat endless 
verses from the Quran, or to administer the powdered 
horn of a sacred bull. When it is known that a red- 
hot iron will be freely applied to an aching tooth or 
head, or that rags dipped in oil and set on fire will be 
administered as poultices for internal pain, or again, 
that as many as one hundred leeches will be appHed to 
each foot of an exhausted patient, it will be easy to 
understand that the people are slow to call in the native 
surgeon or physician. Procrastination in seeking 
medical aid until the complaint is incurable is pardon- 
able under such circumstances. 

In Southern India, the Vydian, or village doctor, 
is quite innocent of physiology; and never over- 
inquisitive as to the properties of the dangerous 
remedies he freely prescribes. According to the Tamil 
idea, every patient should be treated, not only for 
disease, but for devil-possession. " He must be a very 
powerful demon who can resist both magic and 
mercury," says a well-known authority on South India 
customs, " for this latter mineral in the crude form is 
almost invariably one of the ingredients in the V'ydian's 
unwritten prescription." And it would appear that a 
cure is not the only goal aimed at by the native 
physician. To become a doctor no medical training is 
necessary. The profession descends from father to 
son, apart from any idea of capability, and " experience" 
is supposed to be sufficient qualification. "He who 
has killed a thousand people " is the common proverb, 
" is only half a doctor." " Bengali physicians," says 
Lai Behari Da}-, " have been practically divided into 
killers of tens, killers of hundreds, and killers of 
thousands." After such statements, one can understand 
that, as a rule, when a patient recovers under the 
"care " of the native practitioner, it must be attributed 
to the strong constitution which has resisted the 
evil effects of the poisonous compounds administered, 



36 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

and has enabled him also to survive the forty days' 
dieting (which means starvation) prescribed for him. 

" I was sent for," says a Ceylon Missionary, " to 
see a woman dyinj^ from the effects of a snake-bite. 
She was very collapsed, and bleeding from mouth and 
ears. The native snake-doctor had treated her by 
smearing a painful ointment over her eyes to prevent 
her from going to sleep ; he had applied rice and eggs 
to the wound, and given her powerful medicine." 

The suffering inflicted upon the ignorant women 
of the hill-tribes by their equally unlearned relatives in 
the name of medical treatment is inconceivable. Only 
a short time ago, a fine old Toda of the Nilgherry Hills, 
grateful for relief he himself had experienced, came to 
the C.E.Z. Missionary, who was dispensing simple 
remedies, bringing his sick wife. Her relatives had 
branded her with a hot iron on the crown of her head, 
and several times down her spine. 

In the district of Khammamett the following is des- 
cribed as " a certain cure for a pain in the back from 
all causes." \\^hen a woman pounds rice she uses a 
short, strong, wooden pole with an iron band at one 
end. To cure a pain in the back, " take two poles, one 
in each hand. Stand in the middle of the bazaar, hold 
the poles at arm's length ; then slowly bring them 
together in front, but do not knock them." The native 
doctor then squeezes some green juice on the pole, and 
murmurs an invocation. " At a given signal knock the 
poles together." The medical adviser takes his fee and 
goes off, and the pain — ■ — ? 

Miss \\^ells, of Khammamett, was recently called 
to a case of dysentery. The poor woman had 
taken the prescribed remedy, which was made from 
dirty copper pice, the current coin of Hyderabad 
melted and mixed with bazaar calomel, to be drunk 
in repeated cold draughts. The patient's mouth, 
tongue, and throat became so sore and swollen 
that she could hardly swallow or breathe. At this 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 37 

juncture (happily for her) the native doctor was called 
away to another village, and she fell into the tenderer 
mercies of the Zenana Missionary nurse, with the result 
that her life was saved. 

The hakim is not a better surgeon than he is a 
doctor. Apart from gross ignorance as to hygiene, 
ordinary cleanliness is an unknown quality in the 
operations which he fearlessly undertakes. A native 
Christian woman who came into a Mission Hospital 
in North India with a badly ulcerated eye, which had 
to be removed, was found to have followed the remark- 
able prescription of grinding a piece of rough red 
pottery into fine powder and dusting it into the eye to 
cure simple catarrh ! 

A fellow- patient, who was also nearly blind, said 
that five years previously a hdkiin was operating on the 
roadside, and she was persuaded to place herself in his 
hands. She had no money to pay his fee, but by 
pawning her copper cooking vessels she was able to 
raise the needed 2S. 6d. When she had paid this sum 
she was allowed to sit for the operation. This was 
performed by thrusting a red-hot needle into the lens 
and dislocating it. It goes without saying that intense 
pain and permanent blindness were the result of her 
heroic effort to regain her sight. 

In and around Peshawar the favourite remedy for 
external and internal ills is to take the skin of a goat 
or other animal just killed and apply it hot to the 
injured part. At an out-station of Delhi an s.p.g. 
Missionary found a poor woman in a half-dead 
condition quite unconscious and with ver}- high fever. 
One of the chief remedies that had been resorted to 
was a cock freshly cut open and applied to the head 
like a hat. This is supposed to be the correct treat- 
ment for a rush of blood to the head. 

The hdkiui fosters every superstition held by the 
men and women of the district and trades upon the 
credulity of his patients. This not only saves him 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



trouble, but enriches his pocket, a great consideration 
with him. 

A woman of low caste was bidden by her native 
doctor to eat a quantity of sand. The poor, ignorant 
creature did so, only to die in great agony. Some- 
times, however, a prescription is harmless. Dr. 
Summerhayes, of Dera Ghazi Khan, tells of " an able 
Mahommedan who had risen high in Government 
service" who was being " treated" for heart disease 
by a Mullah, i.e., priest. The Mullah picked up a 
small lump of charcoal from the hearth, put it on a 
plate, powdered it, poured on it a little water (he had 
previously read portions from the Quran), then blew, 
as he said, the power of the Quran into this mixture 
and gave it to the patient to drink. 

Miss Digby, of Ellore, says : — " One morning I saw 
two small plates on the table in the Bazaar school and 




Charms given up by Patients.-- Armlets and " Krishna's Foot." 

asked why they were there. I was told the uncle of a 
child was ill and found out that the name of God was to 
be written on the plates and the sick man was to drink 



CALL THE DOCTOR LN 39 

the water which washed off the ink. I asked the master 
to show me how he did it. He made about sixty 
small squares with ink on the plate and in each square 
was a name or attribute of God, written in Arabic, 
while a few short sentences from the Quran surrounded 
the square." 

A lady Missionary (z.b.m.m.) was visiting a Hindu 
widow, when a Brahmin came in. The widow 
consulted him about a cold she had caught. The old 
man looked at his little book, full of figures and 
ciphers, and told her it was the god Rahu who was 
making her ill ; he was in the mansion of the sun, and 
had no good-will towards her. She would do well 
when Rahu went out and Brikspat, another god, 
entered the mansion. In the meantime, she must 
take an earthen saucer full of oil, gaze at her face in 
it, and cut marks with an iron nail on the reflection ; 
then wave the saucer three times over her head, and, 
carrying it out to the cross roads, leave it there. 

In many cases, however, it would appear that 
the doctor really participates in the belief of his 
superstitious and spirit-fearing patients. A remark- 
able example of this is afforded by a Gond priest's 
method of curing sick people. He takes his little 
drum and, sitting down by the sick man's side, begins 
to hum and drone until the enchanted evil spirit 
becomes, as it were, mesmerised and enters the priest's 
body. Then, of course, the latter would fall ill unless 
the spirit were expelled, and this the priest accomplishes 
by dint of thrashing himself with a heav}' chain. 
Such a self-immolating practitioner could scarcely be 
expected to carry on a large practice ! Yet it is some- 
what satisfactory to know that in this instance he 
suffers more than his patients ! 

A suffering and crippled Moslem girl patient was 
asked one day whether she had tried any remedy 
before coming into the Mission Hospital. She replied, 
" Yes, I did everything anyone told mc and took 



40 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

quantities of medicine." Then she confessed that at 
first she bought some meat, and, cutting it up into 
squares, fed the kites with it for two months. Poor 
thing, by being kind to the birds she thought she 
would so please God that He would forgive the sin on 
account of which she believed she was suffering. 
However, Saliman found this was of no use. Then 
she cooked rice very nicely with milk and sugar and 
fed a black dog with it for another month. Worn out 
with her useless attempts, she made up her mind to 
try what the white people could do for her. 

To say that no true sympathy or kindness dwells 
in the breasts of the Indian people would be a gross 
injustice. Although overlaid with an austerity and 
callousness born of barbarous customs and gruesome 
religious rites, there is much deep and true affection in 
families. 

Dr. Jane Haskew (z.b.m.m.) relates being greatly 
moved by seeing penance performed near Lucknow to 
propitiate the god Maha for a sick parent or child ; 
that of prostrating the body all the way to the shrine, 
sometimes a distance of ten, twenty, or thirty miles, 
from the pilgrim's house. The men who undertake 
this lie down with hands stretched beyond their head, 
so as to reach as far as possible, and a mark is made 
in the dust. Next, the man regains his feet, walks up 
to the mark, toes the line, and lays himself down full 
length again, repeating these movements till the whole 
weary distance is covered. 

In China, the case for the native medical 
practitioner is very little better. Any man may 
practise medicine, and many do so with the slenderest 
knowledge. Yet since many unsuccessful scholars 
take to medicine they are often fairly educated men, 
according to Chinese ideas. The really intelligent 
would-be physician reads such books as he thinks 
desirable, being free from the dictates of any examiner. 
Manuscripts which contain the experience of old 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 41 

practitioners are carefull}' treasured; and if a doctor 
can say on his card that he is a physician of three, 
four, or five generations he is supposed to possess the 
abihty accumulated by his forefathers ; and in this case 
many of the remedies are family secrets. Surgery is 
so little understood that only trifling minor operations 
are performed, and a surgeon ranks much lower than 
his brother doctor, since he can only attend to external 
diseases. 

Amputation is never resorted to, as the Chinese 
consider an}- mutilation of the body as an act of dis- 
respect to the parents from whom it was received. 
Injured Mandarins who have been assured by foreign sur- 
geons that amputation alone could save their lives, have 
deliberately chosen to die rather than to lose a limb. 

If the student can afford it he will buy a celebrated 
book, in forty volumes, three hundred years old, con- 
taining nearly 2,000 prescriptions, besides a great deal 
of curious information about the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms. For instance, under the word "Horse" 
will be found the following: — "The heart of a white 
horse,, when dried and rasped into wine and so taken 
cures forgetfulness. Horse flesh should be roasted and 
eaten with ginger and pork. Te eat the flesh of a 
black horse, and not drink wine with it, will surely 
produce death." 

Dr. John Lowe, in his valuable book. Medical 
Missions: tlicir Place and Power, remarks: — " The usual 
way for a Chinaman to enter the profession is to 
procure a pair of spectacles with large bone rims, some 
grasses and herbs, an assortment of spiders and a few 
venomous snakes, which he places in bottles in his 
shop window. Here i.-, one of his prescriptions : — 
" Powdered snakes ... ... 2 parts 

" Wasps and their nests ... i part 

"Centipedes ... ... ... 6 parts 

" Scorpions ... ... ... 4 parts 

"Toads ... ... ... ... 20 parts 



4i BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

" Grind thoroughly, mix with hone}-, and make into 
small pills. Two to be taken four times a day." 

The study of anatomy is strictly forbidden and 
there are no works on physiology. The Chinese doctor 
is entirely ignorant as to the nervous system, and his 
ideas with regard to the circulation of the blood are 
absurdly erroneous. True, there is a very extensive 
medical literature, but its character may be determined 
from a sample of teaching with regard to the pulse. 
(They have a pulse for every organ but the brain !) 

" There are three pulses in each wTist. A man's 
strongest pulse is in his left wrist, a woman's in her 
right. In a man, the pulse that lies nearest the hand 
is stronger than those that lie above ; in a woman just 
the opposite is true. In the left hand are located the 
pulses showing the diseases of the heart, the liver, and 
the kidneys, while the right hand pulses indicate the 
diseases of the lungs, the spleen, and other organs." 

Symptoms are regarded as diseases and treated 
accordingl}-, while the most lamentable ignorance of, 
and indifference to, the origin of the disorder is shewn. 

The Chinese delight in numerical categories and 
profess to find in the five elements in nature (of which 
the}' belie\e the human body to be composed), viz. : — 
Metal, water, fire, wood, and earth, an intimate 
relation to "the five planets, the five tastes, the five 
colours, and the five metals." They therefore divide 
their remedies into five kinds, e.g., hot, cold, moist, dry, 
and windy. So long as the equilibrium of these five 
elements of the body is maintained, people enjoy 
health ; but as soon as one of these predominates, 
sickness ensues. All disease therefore is but a disturb- 
ance of this equilibrium, and the art of healing con- 
sists in restoring the balance. So confident are they 
of this truth with regard to the bod}' and its ailments 
that the}- will not take any remedy that does not agree 
with their notion of the disease. A Chinese patient, 
for instance, stoutly refused to take sulphur as ordered 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 43 

by the Christian physician. He said, " Sulphur belongs 
to fire, and it is one of the elements of gunpowder. I 
have too much heat in my body already ; to take 
sulphur would add to the heat and make the disease 
worse." 

The strangest assortment of drugs (?) are to be 
found in the thriving Chinese druggist's stores. Miss 
Adele M. Fielde, in Pagoda S//a^ott's, gives an inventory 
of a Sw^atow chemist's shop which she visited. 

"Among a great variety of barks, tubers, bulbs, 
roots, leaves, and seeds, we found in separate compart- 
ments the stamens, petals, and seed vessels of the lotus ; 
unhusked rice and wheat sprouted and then dried ; the 
flower of the honeysuckle ; the leaves of the arbor 
vitae ; various species of seaweed ; bones of the cuttle 
fish ; the cast skins of locusts ; the pith of a large reed ; 
dried caterpillars, snails, and worms ; fungi from 
decayed wood; chrysalides of moths and butterflies; 
scales of the armadillo : shavings of goat, ibex, and 
deerhorn; skin of the rhinoceros and the elephant, 
charred tiger's bones ; silk worms ; the shell of the box- 
turtle ; the gall-bladder of a bear valued at ten dollars 
and used as a tonic ; the horn of a rhinoceros valued 
at three dollars for a piece three inches in its largest 
diameter ; centipede six inches long stretched and 
dried on splints; medicated tea in small hard cakes 
used in infusion as a sudorific. Our obliging host said 
there were many other drugs in the shop, but we had 
not time to see them all." 

The following list of medicines is taken from a 
popular standard work, called an A bridgiiieiit or 
Selection of Chinese Xaiive Medicines : — 

Mild and tranquilizing tonics: — Liquorice root, 
parasite of mulberr}- tree, fruit of the cypress, old rice, 
broad beans, jam, asses' glue, birds' nests, mutton, 
duck, pigeon. 

Medicines which increase the natural fire, or 
stimulating tonics: — Cassia, cinnamon, aloes, wood, 



44 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

sulphur, asbestos, stalactite, tops of hartshorn, dried 
red spotted lizard, silkworm, moth, &c. 

Medicines which disperse poisons : — Seeds of castor 
oil plant, resin, ivory shavings, elephants' skin, prepar- 
ations from toads. 

No fewer than 78 articles from the animal kingdom 
are mentioned. 

Often the most revolting and disgusting decoctions 
are given in large doses to the poor sufterers, whose 
faith in the potion given is in proportion to its size and 
repulsiveness. The mixture to be taken often contains 
as many as a hundred such ingredients as decoctions of 
snake or other reptile. As many as two hundred pills 
a day, or three pounds' weight of physic, taken daily 
for several weeks, are fearlessly prescribed as certain 
to work a cure. Probably few patients survive the 
treatment to be able to testify to the result ! 

"Between the ignorance of the doctors and the 
fees they receive there is a just ratio,'-' says Professor 
Douglas. " No physician in his wildest moments of 
ambition expects to receive more than a dollar for a 
visit, and many are not paid more than one-fifth of 
that sum. But, whatever the amount may be, due 
care is taken to wrap the silver in ornamental paper 
bearing the inscription ' golden thanks.' On entering 
the presence of his patient, the doctor's first act is to 
feel the pulses on both wrists. If these guides are 
deemed insufficient to make patent the disorder, 
recourse is made to the tongue, which is supposed to 
yield a sure augury. Their great object is, as they 
say, ' to strengthen the breath, put down the phlegm, 
equalize and warm the blood, repress the humours, 
purge the liver, remove noxious matters, improve the 
appetite, stimulate the gate of life, and restore har- 
mony.' A dual system of heat and cold pervades, they 
believe, the human frame, and it is when one of these 
constituents is in excess that illness supervenes. ' The 
heart,' they say, ' is the husband, and the lungs are the 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 45 

wife, and if these two main organs cannot be brought 
to act in harmony, evil at once arises.'" 

The active daily practice of a popular Chinese 
doctor may be very well illustrated from Dr. Hobson's 
description of a medical practioner in Canton. This 
man, after prescribing for the sick at his office until 
the hour of ten in the morning, would commence his 
rounds "in the sedan chair, carried in great haste by 
three or four men. Those patients were visited first who 
had their names and residences first placed in the entry 
book, and, as the streets were narrow and crowded, to 
avoid trouble in finding the house a copy of the doctor's 
signboard would be posted up outside the patient's door, 
so that the chairmen should be able at once to recognize 
the house without delay. The doctor, being ushered 
into the principal room, is met with bows and saluta- 
tions by the father or elder brother of the family. Tea 
and pipes are offered, and he is requested to feel his 
patient's pulse; if a man, he sits opposite him; if a 
woman, a screen of bamboo intervenes, which is only 
removed in case it is requisite to see the tongue. The 
right hand is placed upon a book to steady it, and the 
doctor, with much gravity and a learned look, places 
his three fingers upon the pulsating vessel, pressing 
it alternately with each finger on the inner and outer 
side, then making, with three fingers, a steady pres- 
sure for several minutes, not, with watch in hand, to 
note the frequency of its beats, but with a thoughtful 
and calculating mind, to diagnose the disease and 
prognosticate its issue. The fingers being removed, 
the patient immediately stretches out the other hand, 
which is felt in the same manner. Perhaps certain 
questions are asked of the father or mother concerning 
the sick person, but these are usually few, as it is pre- 
sumed the pulse reveals everything needful to know. 
He will generall}' describe with a learned, self-satisfied 
air, the ailment of the patient, and the number of days 
it will take to cure him. The 'golden thanks' varv 



46 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

in amount from 15 to 70 cents, or more, according to 
the means of the patient, the chairbearers being paid 
extra. The doctor returns to make another visit, if 
invited, but not otherwise." 

The following prescription, written by a Chinese 
physician, and given to Dr. Annie Walter Fearn, of 
Soochow, by a dispensary patient, may be of interest: 

" Description of disease and prescription for M. 
Pak Ting. 

"In the left wrist the inch pulse is deep and slow, 
and the middle and foot pulses are deep and fine, and 
also slow^ [Note. — The inch pulse is one inch from 
the hand, the foot one inch from the inch pulse, and 
the middle pulse just between the two.j In the right 
wrist the inch pulse is full and large, but with little 
strength. The middle and foot pulses are deep and 
quick. The coating of the tongue is white. The 
ynng (front) side of the right leg involves ih.e y in (back) 
side, and is slightly red and swollen. The base of the 
swelling is large and scattered, and is slightly raised. 
The disease is \\^.\{ yang (positive) and half 37';/ (nega- 
tive), and is called a yaiigtse, i.e., cancer. Food is 
difficult of digestion. The place is swollen, but will 
not break ; the stom.ach is weak. There is thirst, but 
no desire to drink. It is of the utmost importance 
that the patient should take some medicine that will 
bring the disease (inflammation) to the surface and 
greatly strengthen his stomach. If the abscess is 
allowed to remain another half month and does not 
swell or break open, the poison will go down the bone 
and form pus, while on the surface the appearance of 
the skin remains unchanged. A needle (acupuncture) 
must be used, and if, on insertion of one inch or two 
inches no pain is caused, the needle may be thrust 
deeper without injury. This disease is attached to the 
bone and there is pus, but it does not appear on the 
surface. There must be an application (plaster) on the 
outside, and some medicine must be taken to 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 47 

strengthen the vital breath and bring life to the 
blood. 

Prescription to be taken inwardly : — 
Raw yellow root (probably Ptarinica siberica), i mace, 5 

candareens. 
Orange skins (dried), 5 cands. Gentian, 5 cands. 
Sigusticum acultilcbuni, \ mace. Teh s/iu (plant not identified), 

1 mace. 

Cooked licorice, i mace. I'ara, i mace, 5 cands. 

Cotnus officinalis^ i mace. China root {Pachyma cociis), 

2 mace. 

S/ieng /na (Cimicifuga), 3 cands. Tang shcn (a kind of ginseng), 

I mace. 
Cooked putchuck (not known), 
5 cands. 
The decoction made from this to be taken all at once. 
P7-escription for the Plaster {putu'ard application) : — 
Parched black beans, 3 oz. Peonia alba flora (parched), 

I oz. 
Nutmegs, 5 mace. Ginger (cooked). 3 oz. 

Tien /lan sia (plant not identified), 
I oz. 
All these drugs to be reduced to a fine powder, mixed with 
alcohol, and heated, and applied to the sore place 3 times a day. 
Fourth moon, fourth day. 

They say this is not an interesting prescription ; it 
is too short, and far too scientific. 

" One of my native acquaintances," says the 
author of Pagoda Shadows, " is wholly deaf in one ear, 
and the cause of her deafness is a fair specimen of 
Chinese medical diagnosis. Years ago this woman 
caught a severe cold followed by much headache. 
She went to a Chinese doctor for advice, and was 
told that her headache was caused by a disease in 
the form of a kernel in her head, and that the only 
way to cure her would be to let the disease out 
through a hole made either in her eye or her ear. 
She thought it better to lose the latter, and so 
instead of having her eyeball punctured she had her 
ear deeply probed, breaking the tympanum. She 
has been deaf ever since, but the headaches were 
not cured," 



48 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

It is not surprising that the Chinaman shews 
little confidence in his medical adviser ; and that if 
the prescribed remedies are not speedily efficacious, a 
second, third, or even fourth doctor is summoned 
to a case. This leads to a natural result. The 
practitioner, anxious to retain his patient, turns his 
attention wholly to subduing pain and removing 
symptoms however unimportant, while the internal 
cause of the disease remains untouched, and no 
rational treatment is attempted. 

Though their theories are so imperfect, yet there 
are those even among Chinese physicians, who, being 
accurate observers, ha\e learnt the use and properties 
of many medicines, and have seen the propriety of 
various forms of diet. Hence, strange though it may 
appear, in spite of their empirical practice, these 
men are sometimes successful, and they are treated 
with respect, as their employment is considered a 
benevolent one. Still, the majority of those Chinese 
medical men so-called are little removed from ignorant 
quacks and pill-mongers, who are classed by the 
populace among wizards and fortune-tellers. Marquis 
Tseng, who was an able Chinese statesman and 
ambassador to Great Britain, beseeches his country- 
men to place no confidence in three things : — i. 
Buddhism ; 2, Tauism ; 3, Medicine. 

That skilful men are the exception, and not the 
rule, throughout the vast Empire is amply borne out 
by the following assertions made by Dr. H. W. Boone, 
President of the China Medical Mission Association, 
in reference to the native medical men of China. 
" They have no proper method of examining the sick. 
Auscultation, percussion, the use of the thermometer, 
an.d all the varied appliances at our command for 
interrogating the patient are unknown to them. 
Their drugs are crude, inert, or drastic. The\' probe 
the joints and the viscera with needles — cold or red 
hot, or even run them into the spinal cord. They 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 4^ 

have no knowledge of obstetrics. A fractured boae 
is left to get well as best it may. A dislocated joint 
is let alone. Tumours grow until the patient is 
destroyed, and patients die without any attempt being 
made to help them. Diseases of the eye run riot 
and end in total bhndness. Saddest of all, the little 
children suffer and linger, and die from preventible 
or curable disease. Hygiene is unknown. Why 
prolong the mournful record ? " Like their Indian 
neighbours, when the Chinese are sick they have 
recourse to one of the genii or to a god, who, they 
suppose, has control of their particular disease. If 
they recover an offering of fruit, vegetables, sweet- 
meats, &c., is presented to the divinity worshipped. 
If the afflicted person die, they do not consider that 
the god is to blame. " Heaven has willed it." It 
is according to " the reckoning of Heaven." Yet, 
as we have seen, at the same time they make abundant 
use of medicines. 

Sudden illness is frequently ascribed to evil 
influences emanating from one or other of the seventy- 
two malignant spirits or gods. In such a case, one 
of the family takes three sticks of incense in his hand, 
approaches the sick person and earnestly inquires 
with solemnity, " What god has this man offended 
that he is thus afflicted ? I beg that the divinity will 
make it known by the mouth of the sick, so that 
I may readily go and render thanks." If the sick 
man utters the name of a god it is taken for granted 
that such an one has been the cause of his illness. 
Offerings of meats and mock-money, &c., are made 
to propitiate the divinity's good-will and ensure 
recovery. Or a Tauist priest wall at once be hired 
to expel the demon, which he attempts to do by 
incantations, ringing of a bell, sprinkling with " holy " 
water ; concluding his performance by producing three 
paper charms, one of which is to be stuck up over 
the door of the room, another is to be worn on the 

E 



^6 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATM 

head of the patient (if a. woman), and the third is to 
be burnt, and its ashes, mingled with hot water, are 
to be drunk by the sick one. 

Sometimes, in the case of a patient suffering from 
ulceration, malignant sores, or inflamed eyes, the 
" God of Medicine " is invited to the house. A 
friend of the invalid will go to the temple, and, as 
the god is deaf, will tickle his ears to arouse him 
and then pour forth his request ; or he may rub the 
part of the image which corresponds to the part of 
the body of the sick person which is affected, in 
order that the god may know exactly where his help 
is required.* The suppliant, having burnt incense 
and candles before the image of the " doctor," 
returns home carrying with him some of the ashes 
from the censer standing before the god. These ashes 
represent the " doctor," and are treated with great 
reverence by the family. They are done up in red 
paper, and incense and candles are daily burnt before 
them, amid much kneeling and bowing. 

The Rev. J. Doolittle, in his Social Life of the 
Chinese, gives the following description of a remark- 
able ceremony performed, as a last resource, to bring 
back the departing spirit of the sick. The following 
method is sometimes adopted to prevent the death of 
a sick man and restore him to health. Several priests 
of the Tauist sect are engaged to rep at their formulas 
in a temple for his benefit. At the house, or near it, 
or in the temple, another ceremony is performed. A 
bamboo, eight to ten feet long, having fresh, green 
leaves at its little end is provided. Often near this 
end there is fastened a white cock. One end of a red 
cord is tied around the centre of a two-foot measure, 

* In some towns tliey place a brass mule in an open square, 
and those suftering from any disease are directed to rub the 
affected part upon the corresponding part of the mule. Poor 
deluded sufferers have rubbed holes into the brass figures in 
their frantic efforts to get some relief. 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 51 

and the other end is made fast around the bamboo, 
among the green leaves. A coat belonging to the sick 
man, and very recently worn, is suspended on this 
measure, its ends being put into the arm-holes of the 
garment. A metallic mirror, having a handle to it, is 
then tied on this measure in such a manner that it 
will come a few inches above the shoulders of the 
garment, in the place where the head of an individual 
would come were the coat to be worn. Someone of 
the family takes the bamboo pole and holds it loosely 
in his grasp in a perpendicular position. A priest now 
begins to call over the name of the sick person, and to 
ring his bell, and to repeat certain incantations, the 
object of which is to cause the sick man's spirit to 
enter the coat. The white cock and the bright mirror 
are supposed to perform an important part in effecting 
this desirable object. After a while the pole is some- 
times observed to turn round slowly in the hands of 
its holder, which circumstance is believed to be a sure 
proof of the presence of the spirit of the sick man in 
the coat. At the conclusion of the ceremonies the 
coat is taken from its place on the bamboo pole and 
placed as soon as possible on the body of the sick man, 
or it is spread over him as he lies on his bed, if he is 
too sick to allow of it being put on properly. It should 
have been premised that the spirit of the sick man is 
supposed to have left his body, and yet to be hovering 
around in the vicinity. It is supposed also that it can 
be induced by the performance of these ceremonies to 
return to the coat which has been but recently worn 
by the person to whom the said spirit belongs; and if 
it but enters the coat it can be transferred to the body 
of the sick man, and perhaps be prevailed upon to 
remain there. Consultation of a Book of Charms 
with the carrying out of its prescribed rites, the 
burning of paper images as a kind of substitute for the 
sick person, and the propitiation of the inimical spirit 
of a deceased acquaintance by the uttering of a Tauist 



52 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

formula for dissolving or untying grudges, are all 
methods used by the Chinese in the vain hope of 
gaining relief from pain and death. 

Siinili.i similibiis ciirantur is an old proverb with the 
Chinese. "Poison cures poison" is another of their 
therapeutic laws which imperils many a life. The 
more venomous the serpent or insect, the more it is 
valued for pharmaceutical purposes. For extreme 
cases the Chinese have great faith in medicines derived 
from the human body ; no fewer than thirty-two of its 
parts or products are contained in the Chinese materia 
mcdica. Hence it is easy to see the basis of that 
popular superstition which impugns the Christian 
foreigner's motive in coming among them as a design 
for obtaining children's eyes and brains to make 
foreign medicines. A frequent practice that obtains 
among the people in certain districts is that of making 
broth for a sick parent out of the flesh cut from the 
living body of his child and that without ether or 
chloroform. Not long ago the mother of a late 
Governor was thus commended, " She obtained a 
reputation for the filial piety she displayed towards 
her husband's parents, mutilating herself to mix her 
flesh with, his medicine, when her father-in-law 
was ill." 

As we have observed with the Indian people, so with 
the Chinese ; continually recurring incidents go to 
prove that again and again an individual evidences that 
family affection and real love of which the race, as a 
whole, seem more or less devoid. Sickness and trouble 
are calculated to bring out the best side of human 
nature. In a Mission Hospital arc often witnessed 
examples of true devotion on the part of husbands 
and wives, of parents and children, towards each other ; 
and even more frequently do strangers shew mutual 
sympathy. 

As regards the Chinese temperament under affliction, 
it is one which the average i\nglo- Saxon might covet. 



CALL THE DOCTOR IN 53 

Disease, poverty, hunger, abandonment by relatives 
and friends, all are borne by the patient with unwaver- 
ing cheerfulness and optimism. He has a remarkably 
tenacious hold upon life, and a marvellous capacity for 
resisting and overcoming disease. Were it not for this 
combination of characteristics, it is probable that the 
race would be exterminated altogether, as a penalty for 
its utter indifference to laws of hygiene and its absolute 
ignorance and superstition. An authority has remarked 
that if a people with such physical endowments as the 
Chinese were to be preserved from the effects of war, 
famine, pestilence, and opium, if they were to pay some 
attention to the laws of physiology and hygiene, and to 
be nourished with suitable food, there is reason to think 
that they alone would be adequate to occupy the 
principal part of the planet and more. 

Enough has surely been said to prove that the 
people, and especially the women, of these two great 
Eastern lands are at the mercy of " physicians of no 
value." Speaking generally, we may confidently 
assert that millions in both India and China, with the 
adjacent islands of Ceylon and Singapore, suffering 
from every ill that flesh is heir to, have no relief and no 
prospect of relief, accept that which the Medical 
Missionary has to offer. 



CHAPTER III 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 

or 
Doctors Difficulties 



" I, for one, should 
feel it a never-ending- 
source of regret if I lost 
any opportunity of ex- 
pressing the admiration 
which I feel for the self- 
sacrificing and devoted 
lives of missionaries, spent 
under circumstances of 
much trial and physical 
suffering, actuated by no 
hope of gain, and stimu- 
lated by no hope of re- 
ward from men — such 
lives as serve as a 
standard and example 
which all of us would wish 
to follow."- -Sir Charles 
Elliott, Lieut. - Governor 
of Bengal. 



ExouCxH has been 
said to show that 
"hakims in the Hke- 
ness of Jesus " arc sorely needed among our suffering 
sisters in heathen lands. No greater boon can 

54 




House Surgeon, Patient, and StafT Nurse 
;Ludhiana.) 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 55 

possibly be granted them than a well-equipped 
Medical Mission, with its Hospital and Dispensary, 
its skilful Christian lady doctor and dispenser, 
its well-trained nurses and attendants. Presently we 
shall endeavour to show several of these agencies at 
work and their results, the history of which indeed con- 
stitutes a continuation of the Book of the Acts. But 
for the moment we will glance first at some of the 
difficulties to be patiently met and overcome by the 
Missionary practitioner. Suspicion and distrust rank 
foremost on the list. As a matter of fact, there is no 
branch of missionary activity which is so liable to male- 
volent misconstruction. In China, medicine is con- 
sidered a black art, closely allied to witchcraft ; and as 
we have seen what loathsome ingredients are used by 
the native apothecary, we need not be surprised that 
the ignorant people are ready to believe that remedies 
so etftcacious as those prescribed by the "foreign 
devil " must be compounded of unutterably fiendish 
substances. Therefore, the assertions that cans of con- 
densed milk are the boiled-down brains of Chinese 
children, and that human eyes, &c., are used as in- 
gredients in European prescriptions, present nothing 
either incredible or improbable to the ordinary Chinese 
mind. 

A woman wa', recently brought to the C. M. S. Hos- 
pital at Hing-hwa suffering from severe burns on chest 
and arms through the overturning of a lamp. In spite 
of every care, she began to sink, and was taken home 
by her friends ; for patients nearly always desire to die 
among their own people. On reaching her village, her 
friends circulated the story that, whilst she was in 
Hospital, the doctors had taken out her heart, had used 
lint (applied to the burns) to cover up the hole, and 
then given her medicine whereby she could live without 
a heart for a few days, and that they had used her 
heart to make medicine. 

{n the towns of India, even though the dark days of 



56 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

distrust are passing away since Christian and other 
medical aid is being established in all directions, com- 
mon sense among the women is a sadly deficient 
quantity. A little flannel jacket will be recommended 
and supplied by the lady doctor for a baby suffering 
from chest complaint. The advice is taken, but the 
small patient becomes much worse. On inquiry, it is 
found, to the doctor's dismay, that the flannel has been 
worn during the hot hours of the day, and taken off in 
the evening ! 

With regard to surgical cases, it is most difficult to 
keep the patients under control. Cases of fracture are 
taken away from the Hospital, and the splints so care- 
fully applied are removed; the patient will visit a 
shrine, and, smearing the broken limb with mud, 
believe that the bones will unite. Then, when no 
miraculous cure is effected, he or she returns to the 
Missionary doctor for the splints again! 

In the lovely Khagan valley of the Hazara, Dr. 
Lankester, at his first visit, found the people terror- 
stricken, and hiding behind hedges at his approach. It 
turned out that they thought he had come to manu- 
facture Miimiai. This is an imaginary substance which 
they they believe English doctors make, and for the 
purpose entice young children into their tents, and, 
hanging them on a beam over a slow fire, collect an 
oily matter which drops from their brains! They then 
sell it as a specific for all possible diseases. 

The unlikeness to conditions of medical treatment 
at home is calculated to bewilder the "medical" who 
comes into the field straight from her college course 
and hospital rounds. One such Missionary doctor 
says :— 

"At home one attacks disease by the methods 
which one has been trained to believe are likely to be 
most successful. Here one attempts to do the same, 
but is thwarted at every turn. Does a case need care- 
ful and constant attention, the patient refuses iq 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 57 

come into Hospital, or, perhaps, does not even see the 
necessity of coming to the Dispensary every day. 
Ought a disease to be treated by a particular drug, if 
it has poisonous properties, you must not prescribe it, 
or must give it in such small quantities that no harm 
will follow if a week's medicine is taken in a single day. 
Ought a patient to have a special diet, either she 
objects to it on caste principles, or she is too poor 
to afford it. It is disappointing to have to give up 
cherished ideas, and to adopt inferior means of dealing 
with disease, but one is thankful to be abla to do even 
a little to alleviate the sufferings of the women of this 
country." 

A Missionary doctor, not long ago, was called to 
treat the wife of a man of the shepherd caste. She 
found her in the women's part of the "house" — in 
reality, a mud hut, devoid of furniture, dark and damp. 
After affording her patient great relief, and leaving in- 
structions with the relative, the lady left, promising to 
call the next da}'. When she came again, to her sur- 
prise the sick woman was not in the room where 
she had left her, and the doctor was directed to a low 
door on the left. " It was evening," she says, " and 
the daylight was quickly fading ; stooping low, I went 
in. At hrst I could see nothing, as I myself was 
standing in the way of the only light, and my eyes were 
rebelling fiercely at the smoke that filled the room. At 
length, lying on the floor of this, perhaps 8ft. square, 
room, I saw my patient. Beside her was a small 
bracket on legs called an angitJd, filled with fire — 
although the thermometer was registering from 85" to 
go° unartificiall}' ! She had been well rubbed with oil, 
and there she lay in this delightfully airy apartment. 
The door, the only means of communication with the 
outside air, opened into another room. In front of it 
hung a bird's nest to frighten evil spirits away. I 
simply could not stand it long, though we do get 
9.ccustomed to close rooms. I tried to persuade her 



58 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

people to let her come into the Hospital, but they could 
not, as they said it would be against their caste." 

Another substantial difficulty, from the doctor's 
standpoint, is the patients' inability to describe their 
symptoms. A man at Dera Ghazi Khan, on being 
asked the history of his illness, told the inquirer that 
eight years ago a male snake bit him. He killed it, 
but every year, during the hot weather, the female 
snake came and bit him, and so caused the illness. 

A Medical Missionary has often cause to wonder 
how many of the medicines are administered according 
to her directions. Again and again she has to repeat 
her orders, and frequently it happens that when she 
fondly hopes she has explained clearly what has to be 
done, a dialogue something like the following ensues : 

" Now, how is this medicine to be taken ? " 

" It shall be taken just as you say.' 

" Now, what have I said?" 

" Please say again, and I shall know." 

No neat phial is brought for the physic, but a piece 
of cocoa-nut shell, or a little brass saucer. To pre- 
scribe a " teaspoonful " or a " tablespoonful" is all one 
to people who eat with their fingers, and have no use for 
knives, forks, or spoons. If a quarter of the medicine 
does them good one day, they drink up all that is left 
the next day, and make themselves ill. A whole bottle 
of medicine intended for three or four days is frequently 
taken in one dose, in spite of ample warning and 
explanation ; for from their Jidkinis they are accustomed 
to receive a single large draught, which is to do all that 
is required. If the doctor should mix the medicine 
with water from the Dispensary, the patients would not 
touch it, as they would break their caste in doing so ; 
the prescription must be made up with water brought 
by them in their own vessels. 

Tendency to metaphor is a fertile cause of difficulty to 
begmners in the language. Some time ago, a woman 
came to the Quetta Dispensary, complaining of fever 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 59 

and a cough; she, however, spoke of the fever as a 
snake, and the coug-h it had left behind as the trail of 
the snake ! Amusing incidents constantly occur. Out- 
patients of a Hospital come and show their own tongue 
and pulse, when they want medicine for others. "The 
same medicine as you gave my friend just now," is 
asked for, irrespective of difference in the malady. 
Others will put the doctor's powers to the test by 
refusing to give any account of their symptoms, and 
declaring that " if she be a clever doctor, she will 
find out." 

Their hakims, they say, can find out the diagnosis 
and treatment without any inquiries. They can tell 
what is wrong by feeling the pulse of one hand, and 
whether the patient will recover by feeling the pulse of 
the other. Patients hate any examination, and as their 
hakims do not trouble them with this, they object to the 
Medical Missionary's method. 

More often still, the medicine is " put to the 
test " by the addition of all sorts of native mixtures 
taken at the same time, " holy water " from some 
filthy tank freely administered, &c., &c. 

On one occasion a few hours after a lady 
Missionary's first medical visit to a sick Zenana girl, 
she stepped in unexpectedly to find that none of her 
directions had been carried out. So far from the 
absolute quiet prescribed, the room was crowded 
with chattering women, every window and door was 
tightly shut, and the invalid, in a burning fever, was 
tossing from side to side, groaning with pain in her 
head, to which an old woman was applying a dirty 
looking decoction. On inquiry she elicited the 
confession that they had sent the Englishwoman's 
prescription to a native practitioner (who, being a 
man, could not see the invalid), and asked his opinion 
of it. He deliberately took out one ingredient and 
substituted another, and this was the rnixture they 
were giving. 



6o BETWEEN LIEE AND DEATH 

Prejudice and fear prevent many who would 
otherwise become in-patients of our hospitals ; they 
expect to be cut up or poisoned. One poor woman 
suffering from pneumonia was being carefully nursed 
at St. Mary's, Tarn Taran, during the whole of one 
night. But before morning dawned, the old mother- 
in-law declared that the patient was being poisoned 
as so much more medicine was given to her +han to 
the other patients. Stripping the sick woman of all 
clothing, the old hag dragged her out and away till 
she dropped her by the tank to die, while she went 
about to spread the report that the Doctor Miss 
Sahiba, had poisoned her daughter-in-law. 

In cases of threatened blindness, the people hardly 
ever seem to think it worth while to submit to treat- 
ment until the sight is nearly or quite gone. Then 
they repair to the Medical Missionary pleading to 
have it restored. 

In the Chinese Mission Hospital the difficulty of 
dieting special cases is very great. Patients always 
second the efforts of their friends to smuggle in all 
kinds of dainty dishes, from putrefying bean curd 
to pork dumplings, turnips, and pea nuts. Frequently 
the nurse will disco^•er a string of pieces of dried fish 
under a patient's pillow, which was betraying its 
presence to the olfactory nerve of the " foreigner.'' 
It is not uncommon for a patient suffering from acute 
typhoid fever to refresh herself surreptitiously with a 
water-nut or Chinese peas, the hardness of which is 
only known to those who have tried to eat a piece of 
stick dipped in syrup. 

Sick nursing is quite unknown. A woman who 
ought to be kept in bed will be found walking about 
her room, or else will go somewhere to see a neigh- 
bour. In Peshawar, Dr. Eleanor Mitcheson went to 
see a poor suffering lady one early morning, having the 
previous evening ordered hot poultices to be applied 
throughout the night. On asking the patient, " Did 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 6i 

you sleep ? " the reply was "No, the pain was so 
bad,'.' " How many poultices did you have ? " 
" Two. What could they do ? They all went to 
sleep." The doctor looked round at the roomful of 
women ; not one had thought it necessary to sit up 
beside the poor sufferer. 

Impatience of recovery forms a very formidable 
discouragement and difficulty. The relatives of the 
patient cannot wait to see the effect of the treatment 
before they call in other advice. The Medical 
Missionary may walk out at one door, and a native 
doctor be immediatel}^ brought in at another, who will 
be treated in the same manner. Often, if an immediate 
cure does not follow the first dose of medicine, the 
bottle is shelved and pronounced ineffective and 
useless. 

Again, their impatience of prolonged treatment is 
sufficient to tax the physician's or surgeon's good 
temper to the utmost. For instance, the most minute 
and Qmphatic cautions against disturbing a plaster 
jacket are not sufficient to prevent its summary 
removal, because the Chinese patient does not wish 
to become a turtle, and have a hard shell grow to 
her skin ! 

In the Dispensaries, the most pathetic stories 
illustrative of ignorance, suffering, and poverty are 
constantly elicited from the women — young and old. 
They have been ill for many weeks, months, or even 
years. When asked why they did not come before, 
they answer, " Why should we ? We are only women, 
and it is the lot of women to suffer. We did not 
know before that anything could be done for us." 

If often requires a great deal of patience to find 
out the nature of their complaints, because their 
answers are so wide of the mark and so contradictory. 

" It is not a very comforting reflection," says Dr. 
A. H. Smith, " but it is one which seems to be 
abundantly justified by observation, that the opinion 



62 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

of the most ignorant assistant in a Dispensary seems 
(and therefore, is) to the average patient as valuable as 
that of the physician in charge, though the former may 
not be able to read a character, does not know the 
name of a drug or the symptoms of any disease, and 
though the latter may have been decorated with all 
the letters in the alphabet of medical titles, and have 
had a generation of experience. Yet a hint from the 
gatekeeper or the coolie may be sufficient to secure the 
complete disregard of the directions of the physicians, 
and the adoption of something certainly foolish, and 
possibly fatal." 

The doctor's inquiry of a patient, How old are 
you ? constantly elicits the answer given with a 
helpless air, " How should I know ? or " The news 
has not yet reached me." A wrinkled old woman 
will say, " I look old, but my years are few," while 
another will state " Perhaps I may be about lOO years 
old. I don't know. If you think I am more write it 
down." 

Very often they exhibit the profoundest belief in the 
doctor's power. On their first visit to the Dispensary 
they will say, "Give me such a medicine that, if I take 
only one dose, it will, not only cure my present illness, 
but also prevent me from getting any other disease." 

Naturally, to those who have never seen the face of 
a white woman, a visit to the foreign lady hdknii re- 
quires courage of the first order. One such village 
woman, after much persuasion, came to Jandiala Hos- 
pital to consult the Missionary-in-charge, on being 
admitted to her presence, ran out again as fast as she 
could, crying out, "It is not a Miss SaJiiba, but a 
Sahib " It was with the greatest difficulty that she 
was made to return and urged to stay for a day or two, 
as she had come from a distant village. On being 
pressed to say why she thought the Miss Sahiba (who 
was not a creature of the gods, divinel}- tall) was a 
man, she replied, " I looked — there were no jewels on 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 63 

her head, her neck was bare, her ears straight and un- 
adorned. Her fingers were innocent of rings, and 
bracelets did not encircle her arms. Is there a woman 
who never wears jewels ? Does such a one exist ? 
Such were my thought-s, and at once I recognized that 
I had been deceived, and had been brought to a man." 

To preserve discipline and order among a crowd of 
patients assembling in a Dispensary requires tact, good 
humour, and firmness in equal proportion. It is infin- 
itely difficult to persuade the village patients that it is 
easier for the doctor, and better for the patient, to see 
and be seen one by one. What they would love best is 
to rush into the consulting room together, tell their 
symptoms, and receive their medicine at once. The 
itinerating dispenser often has still greater difficulties 
in reducing the throng that presses around her to order. 
Once, in quite the early days of Medical Mission 
itinerating, the faithful Indian attendant of a Doctor 
Miss Sahiba stood at the doer of her tent to admit the 
patients, one by one. In order to save his mistress 
time and trouble, he hit upon the original and interest- 
ing plan of telling the victim to put out her tongue the 
first thing, and then led her in, tongue out ! 

The eagerness for treatment displayed by the in- 
habitants of remote villages is well illustrated in the 
case of one woman, in the Travancore district, who 
evidently thought that, while the Missionary was there, 
she would get all that she could. Therefore, she 
brought bottles of all sizes, capable of holding from 
a quart down to an ounce of liquid, that all might 
be filled with difterent medicine for the future ailments 
of herself and famil}- ! 

The bondage of caste customs among the Hindus 
presents almost insuperable difficulties 10 the European 
treatment. A mother brings two puny children to the 
Dispensary, and holds a branch to prevent the Doctor 
Miss Sahiba from putting any evil spirit into them 
The spirit she would like to put in is eggs, milk, 



64 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

and meat, but animal food of anj^ kind she must 
not name. 

But, in spite of all the difficulties that beset the 
Medical Missionary at the beginning of her noble work, 
in spite of the prejudice and ignorance, fear and stupid- 
ity, impatience and superstitions of the patients, there 
comes a time when confidence is gained, and gratitude 
is poured out. 

In a village in the North-west Provinces, India, the 
other day, as the Missionary washed and dressed a 
woman's ulcerated hand, the women standing by ex- 
claimed, " We feel as though an angel had come into 
our midst," while the patient's sister hurried off to her 
garden, and brought a cauliflower and some radishes as 
an offering to show her gratitude. In China, too, the 
same feeling obtains a nong the grateful women, two of 
whom were overheard discussing the good they had 
gained by the Christian doctor's treatment. 

" Everyone knows that they are angels," said one. 
" No," said the other, " they are stars dropped from 
heaven." Dr, A. Neve, of the C.M.S. Hospital at 
Kashmir, told the following remarkable story at the 
annual meeting of the C.E.Z.M.S., not long ago: — 

" I remember that about this time last year a 
Mohammedan priest came to the Hospital, and I went 
to him next morning in paying my usual rounds, and 
asked him how he was. He said, " Oh, I could not 
sleep." I said, "Why could you not sleep?" He 
answered, " I was weeping." I thought perhaps he had 
been suffering some severe pain, and so I said, " Why 
were you weeping ? " And he said, "I was weeping at 
the thought of the love and kindness of those who come 
to us from far off over the sea." Then he told me that 
there was a poor Kashmiri in the next ward, who, long 
after dark, had been groaning with pain, and he told 
me how the lady superintendent had left her comfort- 
able quarters and come to see what she could do to 
make the poor Kashmiri more comfortable. And he 



A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 65 

said, "The sight of that lady, who had been working 
all day, coming down at midnight to see what she could 
do for that stranger and foreigner — the sight of that it 
was that made me weep." And this is the impression 
it makes on many of the people. They understand the 
men, and their going to foreign parts, because Indians 
leave their own country to go to other lands to trade, 
and so on. They understand why officials go from 
England. But what they do not understand is why 
ladies should leave their comfortable homes and their 
friends, their family connections and such like, in order 
to go right across the sea and live isolated lives, simply 
working for foreigners. And they can find but one 
answer, " the love of Christ constrains them." 

On one occasion, at Bangalore, a patient asked, 
" Who gives us these medicines ? " and when told that 
the expenses were defrayed by English ladies, she re- 
marked, " When they are doing so much for our sakes, 
their religion must be true." 

At Baharwal Atari such remarks as the following 
may be heard daily : — 

"This is like heaven upon earth." 

" Our fathers and mothers don't do for us as these 
people do. God's love and fear are in their hearts." 

" This place seems full of blessing." 

" God is bound to answer your prayers for us when 
you serve Him so well." And a poor Chinese woman, 
on being asked what kind of place Jesus had gone to 
heaven to prepare; replied, " A Hospital." 

It is very noticeable that, whereas the people attri- 
bute to their gods all sickness that comes upon them, 
they commonly assign the healing power of the 
Missionary doctor to our Lord and Master, and fre- 
quently the Mission Hospital is called the "Jesus 
Healing Institution." A remark made by a heathen 
patient at Dera Ghazi Khan was striking, " Pills arc 
good, but pills with prayers (believing) are much 
better" 

F 



66 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

A very remarkable testimony was borne by an 
Indian woman to' a belief in combining the Christian 
religion with medicine, which is obtaining ground with 
the intensely religious people of India. A Parsi woman 
brought her daughter to the Surat Dispensary of the 
Zenana Bible and Medical Mission. The girl had been 
ailing for several years, the mother said, had been 
treated by many doctors, native and European, but was 
daily becoming worse. " Have you taken her to the 
civil Hospital," the Missionary asked. "Yes, Madam," 
was the reply, " I took her there years ago, when she 
first became ill, and I have taken her to all the new 
doctors that have come since, but she grows worse." 
" Well," said the Missionary, " there is no better phy- 
sician in the land than the doctor at the civil Hospital, 
and I have no medicines different from what he has 
probably given her, and I do not see the use of trying 
anymore." "Oh! madam, do! do try something!" 
the woman implored, " There is tliis difference — you 
have the blessing of God on your work." Again the 
Missionary heard every detail of the girl's affection, 
which was indeed a curious one, and God guided her to 
a very simple remedy which had not previously been 
tried, and in a few weeks the girl, who could not stand 
alone on her first visit, returned, walking quite firmly. 

And so in different ways the cry is voiced that fell 
from the lips of a poor woman at Asrapur : — 

" Give me medicine in the name of Jesus whom you 
serve, and I shall get well." 

It is in answer to that plea, superstitious and ignor- 
ant though it may be, that those who follow the lead of 
the Great Physician Himself are going forth, undaunted 
by obstacles, undeterred by difficulties and discourage- 
ments, offering health in its completest and divinest 
sense to "them that have need of healing" for body 
and soul. Who can conceive a nobler enterprise ? 
Who follows in their train ? 



CHAPTER IV 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 



or 



Some Specific Ills 



God said : Break thou these yokes ! Undo 

These heavy burdens I I ordain 
A work to last your whole life throu;<h — 

A ministry of strife and pain." 

" Finally we 
commend to Thy 
I'atherly good- 
ness all those who 
are in anyways 
afflicted or dis- 
tressed, in mind, 
body, or estate, 
that it may please 
Thee to comfort 
and relieve them, 
according to their 
several necessi- 
ties." — C. of E. 
Prayer for all 
Sorts and Con- 
ditions of Men. 



As we have 
glanced at 
suffering wo- 
manhood and 

A Plague Patient. childhood in 

the far East, let us briefly specialize some of the 




70 nETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

particular burdens of affliction which fall upon 
our sisters (and brethren, too,), distressing them 
" in mind, body, and estate," and constituting 
an urgent plea for Christian medical skill and 
spiritual ministry. As we do so, that beautiful 
liturgical prayer, which falls upon so many ears as 
mere familiar cadence, will deepen in its meaning. 
The horizon of our minds will widen as we realize that 
multitudes claim an interest in it. "All those " who 
in "anyways" are in "necessity" will be found to em- 
brace some who are waiting for tis to bring them to the 
Great Physician Who alone can comfort and relieve 
them, giving them "patience under their sufferings, 
and a happy issue out of all their afflictions." 

In the course of Medical Mission work in such a 
land as India, opportunities occur for displaying 
heroism for Christ's dear sake which assuredly will not 
go unrewarded by Him. When the district surround- 
ing a Mission Station is suddenly swept and devastated 
by plague, it is at such a time that the reality of 
Christ's religion is manifested, and the true Missionary 
spirit is demonstrated before the people, and they 
acknowledge for the first time that " the Lord, He is 
the God." 

Plague is the most fatal of all diseases, The 
early symptoms are sometimes like those of ague, 
but combined with nervous symptoms. The patient 
tosses about in constant fear of something he cannot 
describe, has a difficulty in understanding and in 
answering questions. There is severe headache, in- 
tense thirst, and great internal pain. This condition 
may pass into coma even before fever sets in. The 
temperature may be ioo°-i07° Fahr,, or even higher, 
but in the most rapidly fatal cases there may be little 
or no fever. There are also certain special character- 
istics of plague, such as buboes, or glandular swellings, 
which, in non-fatal cases, suppurate, and petechia;, or 
ha^morrhagic spots on the skin, always regarded as 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 71 

signs of the worst omen. They appear generally 
only a few hours before death. In India, a general 
accompaniment of these symptoms is that of haemor- 
rhage from the lungs. The duration of an attack of 
plague may be from some hours to a month. 

Early in 1897, the plague began to ravage the 
Sindh Province, that reach of " flat, sun-browned 
countr}', gasping beside the well-watered Punjab." 
One of its terrible features was the rapidity with which 
its victims would be hurried into eternity ; many a 
strong man, being attacked as he walked the streets, 
would pass away, in fearful agony, some two hours 
later. 

In Karachi, as the year came in, the aspect of the 
city was mournful in the extreme. The streets were 
practically deserted and red with carbolic ; most of the 
shops were closed, and on all sides the dread red 
plague mark was on the walls. Here and there, small 
groups of men were to be seen standing at the door of 
a house, whitewashing the entrance. A bed out in the 
road, a few stones taken up out of the pavement, 
indicated a death from plague in the house. 

Karachi, that polyglot place, the resort of a restless, 
mixed multitude of strangers, Indian, Armenian, 
African, and Jewish, with its huge population of 
100,000 inhabitants, became a plague-stricken city. 
On all sides people fled to any harbour of refuge which 
could be obtained, and in temporary huts outside 
the town, endured untold misery and discomfort ; yet 
the death-rate increased daily, and it was the women 
who suffered the most, and needed most the com- 
fort and tender sympathy and teaching of our lady 
Missionaries, who never flagged, or grew weary, or 
shrank from visiting one plague-infected house after 
another. Their brave, fearless trust in God, while 
at the same time they took every precaution to prevent 
carrying infection, was rewarded by complete immunity 
and they were kept from harm. 



72 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

One town after another was attacked by the fell 
disease. With rapid strides Sukkur, the most import- 
ant town in Sindh, became another centre of contagion 
and woe. Iri Behind tJie Pardah, we have narrated the 
touching story of the young girl Rochi, to whom Miss 
Brook ministered and whom she had the joy of leading 
to the Saviour ere she passed away. 

As one walked dow^n ghiiti (alley) after gliitti, not a 
soul was to be seen. Every house was shut and pad- 
locked from without. On countless doors was the 
large red cross. The population of 30,000 seemed to 
have melted away. The Government order had gone 
forth that " No native doctor or hakim must give medi- 
cine without first reporting the case, and if the patient 
is found to have plague, he or she must be removed at 
once outside the city to little huts put up for the pur- 
pose." The people said, "We do not fear the sickness ; 
we all have to die ; but the Sarkar (Government) will 
take us away by the hands of sweepers, and feed us by 
the hands of sweepers, and so our religion is spoilt, and 
we become unclean." 

Thousands of people left the city. Out in the 
jungles, they died daily, " like animals, with none to 
burn or bury them." The public schools were closed, 
two of the buildings were converted into Hospitals, and 
the nursing of the patients for some time was put into 
the hands of Miss Driscoll and Miss Din, an Indian 
assistant Missionary, able to speak Sindhi, Urdu, and 
Punjabi fluently. There between life and death 
amongst the sick, the dying, the dead, and their 
sorrow-laden relatives, they ministered by word and 
deed in the Name of the Lord Jesus. There, too, were 
witnessed the awfully solemn, unspeakably sad scenes 
of those who, dying in heathen darkness, were callmg 
with the last breath upon their gods. 

Miss Driscoll recalls the following infinitely pathetic 
incident. " A father had lifted his grown son from 
the hospital bed to the floor to die, and the old man 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 73 

in the midst of his weeping, and the son in his dying 
agony, were both calUng out, ' Ram ! Ram ! Ram ! 
Ram ! ' The boy was still, and the father thinking he 
was dead, went out weeping loudly. I stooped, and 
slipped my hand inside the boy's jacket. He was 
still alive, but as I waited, his heart gave one last 
flutter under my hand and he was gone. The old 
father came back and, trying to control his voice, cried 
out to us, ' We have four daughters ; he was our only 
son. I can bear it, but what will his mother do ? 
When she hears it she wall die ! ' " 

Throughout the plague district, it was most 
touching afterwards to witness the grief of the 
mothers of schoolgirls who had died. They would 
bring their books and slates to the Missionary in 
charge, and shesv the mark at the place where the 
poor children had last read, wailing piteously, " She 
will never need them again ! " Re-opening school 
everywhere was sadder still, so many benches empty 
and familiar faces missing ! Still, as their mothers 
testified, the teachers had the joy of knowing that 
many an elder pupil had received the Truth in the 
love of it, and had known the reality of drawing near 
to God in prayer. 

Yet, it was glad work for our missionaries to be able 
to point these suffering ones in their fearful extremity 
to the great Sin and Sorrow Bearer ; to hear many a 
man, woman, and child, slowly and painfully, but 
eagerly, repeating after them the prayer, " Lord Jesus, 
forgive me my sins, come into my heart, shew me 
Thyself," and to hear as they moved away from the 
sufferer, like an echo falling fainter and fainter, the 
weak voice re-iterating " Forgive me my sins ! Forgive 
me my sins ! " 

Then, too, this awful visitation was blessed to the 
wider sowing than ever before of the seed, of the 
Kingdom. At first, in the streets there were 
opportunities of Gospel preaching to crowds such 



74 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

as never before were witnessed. Beginning by talking 
to one fear-striken woman, our Missionary would 
quickly find herself surrounded by large numbers of 
listeners as she turned the conversation, from the 
sickness and flight of the people, to sin, and the need 
of fleeing to Jesus. Again, in gardens and fields, 
where the inhabitants had settled, and in the Govern- 
ment Segregation Camps where nearly 800 huts were 
found in groups of hundreds and fifties, our workers 
found endless opportunities of pointing to Jesus, the 
Sin and Burden Bearer, the paralyzed and panic- 
stricken people. Those who, but for the plague, would 
never, probably, have heard, listened again and again 
to the Gospel. Even in the city during the three first 
months of 1897 the number of hearers rose from 272 
to 1,521. 

Hyderabad, 120 miles from Karachi, surrounded 
with mountainous scenery, and with a population of 
over 65,000, was not to be exempt from the awful 
scourge, although its inhabitants boasted it would 
never come to their beautiful city. 

In vain they tried to hide from Government 
officials that the plague had come. Poor women with 
the complaint upon them would be found trying to 
clean their brass vessels as usual, and, looking up with 
a wan smile to the doctor, would declare they were 
quite well, onh' to drop a few hours after and pass 
away. Those who tried to flee from the city suffered 
great privations from want of food, water, &c. Police- 
men were stationed to guard each public road ; but 
these often abused their trust, and by threatening to 
detain and report the fugitives on the plea that they 
had incipient plague, would extort rupees until their 
avarice was satisfied, and then they would allow the 
man to pass, saying " Ah brother, you look better 
than I thought. Pass on.*' Needless to say had this 
been known to the Government, it would have been 
severely punished. 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES is 

Our pen refuses to describe fully the plague and its 
attendant horrors, but a graphic description has been 
given to the writer by our Missionary, Miss Rachel 
Piggott : who, at the request of the Hindu Panchayat 
(Council) of Hyderabad, accepted the difficult post of 
superintendent and nurse at the temporary hospital 
they had opened. 

As our Missionary entered the hospital a sad sight 
of helpless disorder and misery met her eyes. It 
needed much grace, much wisdom, and great courage 
born of simple trust in God, to bring that chaos of 
hopeless confusion into order. In one small room no 
fewer than four patients and five of their friends had 
settled for the night, each party having deposited 
their own cooking vessels and bundles of clothes 
beside them. Of space, there was certainly none to 
spare, of air there was less to breathe. 

It required some tact on the part of the Missionary, 
almost a new-comer in Indian and not yet fluent in 
the language, to insist on having orders carried out 
that were likely to wound native feelings. Gently, 
but firmly, she begged, as a favour to herself, that 
friends would withdraw to the verandah to cook their 
food, and quickly small cook houses were provided for 
their use, and places assigned for their belongings, so 
that the wards were clear for the sick. Next, a 
carriage marked with a large red P was prepared to 
fetch the patients to the Hospital, and another marked 
with C was got ready to convey them to the 
Conwilescent Home when they had recovered. 

When the stream of in-coming cases began to flow 
faster each day, the women were remo^•ed to a house 
opposite the Hospital set apart for them ; but so great 
were their fright and misery that few of them seemed 
to care whether the men saw them or not. 

As the plague increased, the people grew more and 
more frightened. So that they simph- left their sick 
to die alone, and fled from their houses ; while as time 



76 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

went on in the Hospital it was sad to see the friends' 
joy when their relatives died, so glad were they to 
escape from the Hospital without infection. It was a 
remarkable fact, however, that although one nurse 
caught the disease and died from it, only two of the 
friends who were nursing took the plague, and only 
one of these died. This, doubtless, was due to the 
precautions and sanitary conditions enforced. 

It was hardly surprising, that before long, the men 
requisitioned to carry out the dead grew terror- 
stricken, and ran away. For a time the lady nurse 
herself undertook the awful task ; but it proved 
beyond her strength, and the only course was for 
the ward attendants to remove the patients just 
before they died. These attendants, Hindus and 
Mahommedans, proved good and helpful nurses under 
strict supervision ; although their Indian habit of 
thought led them to slacken their efforts under the 
impression that it was useless to cope with " fate." 

The Hindu gentlemen themselves helped nobly. 
One of them never left the Hospital. Although his 
own brother, at a distance from him, was carried off 
by plague, he continued his ministrations, remarking, 
" It only makes me more anxious to help those in 
distress." 

This man, seemed not far from the Kingdom and 
claims our prayers, for although admiring Christ's 
example, he will not accept Him as the Saviour. On 
the remark being made to him, " You seem to be very 
fond of children," he replied, " Yes, did not Christ 
say ' Suffer the little children to come unto Me.' " It 
was noticeable, too, that the common sorrow and 
affliction drew Mahommedans and Hindus alike to 
pray to God to stay His Hand. 

But to return to the Hospital. A sketch of a day's 
work told almost in Miss Piggot's own words, will best 
shew how our devoted worker moved literally between 
life and death for live long, eventful weeks ; and was 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 77 

enabled to illustrate, by practical object-lessons, the 
Saviour's self-sacrificing love. 

" I used to go into the Hospital at about 6.30 a.m., 
dreading to hear how many had gone in the night. 
The worst cases were visited first, and while taking 
the temperatures, the red carriage would drive up, 
and in it I should find perhaps, as occurred in one 
instance, the new patient, a poor woman, sitting up 
quite dead, to the utter astonishment and grief of her 
husband, who had brought her. 

" For the patient whose temperature registered 
107" there must be a special sponging with ice water, 
and ice bags applied to the head ; while during this 
operation the superintendent's eye must be kept upon 
other ice poultices to see that they were removed by 
the none too watchful attendants. 

" Next came the feeding, the worst cases with 
special food, such as mutton essence, &c., which even 
in the case of strict Hindus, was permitted to be done ; 
then the more difficult task of administering medicines 
all round ; and afterwards the oversight of a thorough 
cleansing of the wards, both floors and walls, with 
strong carbolic. While this was going on, probably 
two patients would die, and this meant a note to the 
office for the necessary bier — two long poles with a 
few branches tied ladder-wise, some straw, and red 
cloth. 

"It seemed very awful that in less than two hours 
those bodies would be burnt and all trace of them 
would be gone — gone for ever. More than half of the 
patients were unconscious during the whole time they 
were in the Hospital. It was very sorrowful to hear 
the wailing of the heathen mourners, " Where, oh, 
where have you gone?" to see them wild with grief, 
tearing their hair, and beating their heads upon the 
ground. How we prayed for them ! How we longed 
that the message of God's love might be brought more 
quickly to these hearts that "sorrow without hope," 



78 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

One seemed to die with them over and over again 
in their misery. 

" By this time it was ii o'clock and I would go to a 
well-earned breakfast, and rest until 2 p.m. On my 
return I would find several empty beds, and many new 
patients. More temperature-taking, more sponging, 
more ice-bags, poultices, &c., and continual calls from 
bedsides to give an opinion of the patient to some 
anxious watcher. At 4 p.m. another general cleaning 
of the ward — always a surprise to patients and friends, 
who failed to understand its utility. One of my 
troubles was that men would constantly come in and 
strew flowers upon the beds. Of course, they quickly 
withered and grew obnoxious, but I was the only one 
p rivileged to remove them. 

"At five, I would creep wearily up to the bungalow 
verandah for tea (I might not go inside with my plague 
clothes), and then sometimes I would gratefully accept 
a "lift" in the plague carriage back to the Hospital. 
Not a ver\- wise thing to do, but I was much too tired 
to mind ! 

" My first duty then was to see off convalescing 
patients. Oh, how rejoiced we all were at their 
recovery, and to see them start ! Then new patients 
would arrive till the wards overflowed ; on one occasion 
five men and boys had to be put in one outhouse. 
After this, more poulticing and ice-bag work, more 
anxious mothers and friends to be sympathized with, 
numberless questions to be answered, a little smoothing 
of friction between the native nurses, &c., 8c.i. This 
would go on, with the exception of an interval for 
dinner, until about 11 p.m., when I would thankfully 
leave the night nurses in charge and retire, feeling very 
tired but very grateful to God, who had allowed me to 
share in the troubles of His people, who are His 
children although the}- do not realize it." 

But at first Miss Piggott's work was not over when 
ni'dit came. The ward attendants were far too iffuor- 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 79 

ant of what was demanded of night nurses ; and few 
could be found to take up the duties at all. Very soon 
after taking the supervision, the Superintendent herself 
decided to relieve the helpers for one or two nights. 
"Will you not have a bed ? " they inquired solicitously. 

" A bed ! " Miss Piggott replied. " What for ? " 

" Oh, to sleep on," they answered. 

" Certainly not," was the prompt response. " When 
I sit up to look after sick people, I do not sleep." 

However, her fellow sitters-up retired at 11 p.m., 
and were not visible again till 5 o'clock in the morning ! 
After that two special nurses had to be obtained who 
understood night duty. 

What weary and wierd nights those were, only they 
who went bravely through them can tell. The dying, 
scattered in different rooms ; some deliriously walking 
about, refusing to keep their beds, or being dragged up 
and down the wards by anxious and ignorant relatives, 
and made to drink, whereas their only hope of recovery 
lay in absolute stillness. Those for whom their friends 
cared little fared the best. A singular feature in the 
complaint was that when it attacked girls of twelve to 
seventeen, they lay in a heavy stupor, and, without 
once awakening, passed away. One ward was full of 
children. These all recovered, with one exception, a 
little girl, whose father troubled so little about her that 
it was good to know she went to receive the Heavenly 
Father's loving welcome Home. 

All through this time of risk and peril, our Mission- 
ary was kept in health; and God's protecting care over 
her was shown in an almost miraculous escape from 
contracting the disease accidently. A poor boy, madly 
delirious, tried hard to bite her, and succeeded in 
scratching her wrist. Pure carbolic was at once hero- 
ically applied, and no worse result took place than 
a bad wrist and high fever for two days. 

And what of the spiritual results ? Only in the Day 
of His appearing shall we know how many touched the 



8o BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

hem of Christ's garment and were made whole. One 
woman told her beloved Missionary that many of the 
young men were Christians at heart, though as yet 
they dared not confess Him openly. 

A boy, who had been in a Mission School, was 
brought into the Hospital, but only to die. When he 
was dying, some of the Hindus, men of good position, 
came round his bed and told him to call on the Hindu 
gods. With courage that could only have been given 
him by God's Holy Spirit, and with a loud voice, he 
exclaimed, " Never ! I believe in one Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, and all my trust is in Him, and Him alone." 

One sweet young woman patient and her mother 
listened gladly to the Gospel, and she was visited long 
after she was well, until, through Hindu opposition, 
the house was barred against all Missionaries. A great 
impression was made on these two women from the fact 
that on one occasion, when transferring the patient 
from one room to another, Miss Piggott carried the 
girl's shoes. The mother fell on the Missionary's neck 
and embraced her, in admiration of the act of great 
humility which the carrying of shoes conveyed to the 
Eastern mind. 

When the epidemic subsided, and the Plague Hos- 
pital was no longer frequented. Miss Piggott was 
the recipient of a Government Certificate of Merit. 
The wording, in gilt letters upon parchment, ran as 
follows : — 

"This is to certify that Miss Piggott rendered 
valuable services to Government within Hyderabad 
Municipal limits during the operations against Plague 
in the year 1897-98. 

By order of His Excellency the Right Honourable 
the Governor in Council, 

(Signed) A. F. Woodburv, 
Chief Secretary to Government. 
Bombay Castle, 

(Date) 6th April, 1899." 



fHEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 8i 

A still more interesting parchment was that pre- 
sented on the 5th June, 1897, by the Hindu Panchayat, 
in the form of a letter from the Superintendent : — 
" Dear Miss Piggot, 

On behalf of the Hindu Panchayat, I beg to 
tender you our warmest thanks for the voluntary help 
you so freely rendered in nursing patients in the Hindu 
Panchayati Plague Hospital, at a critical time, at great 
personal risk. Such noble, unselfish work is always 
blessed, and it is a privilege to express our gratitude to 
you for the important part you have taken in saving 
human life. 

I beg to remain, 

Dear Miss Piggott, 
Your most grateful servant 

i3ayaram Gidumal, 
Superintendent of the Hospital." 
Accompanying this testimonial was a tablecloth 
worked in raised gold and silver thread, and with 
the inscription : — 

"To Miss Piggott, from the Hindu Panchayati 
Plague Hospital." 

At Bangalore and Mysore, a truly awful visitation 
of plague took place as recently as i8gg. Bazaars 
were closed, and supplies were at a premium. The 
waterman was forbidden by his village headman to 
come in. Our Gosha Hospital doctors and nurses 
bravely helped in many a case, and visits from our 
ladies to the segregation camp were made daily and 
were deeply appreciated. Writing at this time, Miss 
A. M. L. Smith remarked, " If there were twenty-four 
instead of twelve working hours in the day, we should 
find it none too long." 

A striking fact which is worthy of note is the 
remarkable immunity of native Christians and 
European workers during the prevalence of deadly 
visitations of disease. During a recent visitation of 
cholera at Khammamett, Miss Wells reported, "Not 

G 



82 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

one of the Mission party or workers was attacked, and 
among the Christians there were only five cases, all 
mild, and all yielding to treatment." Recognizing as 
the primary cause of this exemption God's special 
protection, we may attribute it also to faith in His 
power, readiness to further all municipal regulations, 
and personal cleanliness. Careful, regular, cleanly, 
and right living had much to do with it. " Hearts 
sprinkled from an evil conscience, and bodies washed 
with pure water," the Christians may be said to have 
moved in a charmed circle. 

We have spoken at length of the plague in 
India, though much more might be written of our 
Missionaries and their work in other places where the 
plague has made fearful ravages. 

But now, for a moment, we must turn to China, 
and there we find it is just as deadly a foe. Only two 
summers ago, and a wail of agony was going up to 
heaven from the city of Amoy and its surrounding 
villages. For twelve weeks the raging scourge claimed 
thousands of victims. "To-day," writes a Medical 
Missionary, " as some of my out-patients told me of the 
aching void in their hearts, neither I nor my Chinese 
assistant could restrain our tears. A heathen woman 
came in to consult me about her eyes. They were 
very badly inflamed. On inquiring how long they had 
been in this condition, she said, 'Ever since I began to 
cry over the loss of m}- children. They are all gone ; 
the plague took them all, and I am alone, all alone.' 
Then the agonizing tears burst once more from her 
eyes. What a privilege it was to be able to point her 
to the God of Love ! " 

At the present time, plague has attacked many 
places in the south of the Fuh-Kien Province, and 
numbers of Chinese souls are being hurried into 
eternit}'. 

Cholera is another awful foe which, like the plague, 
devastates Indian hearths and homes. The epidemic 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 



83 



steals upon a village, seizing victims right and left, and 
causing widespread panic. 

"So," says Miss E. Owles, of the Nuddea Village 
Mission, " it stole upon a Christian village where we 
were staying for three months in April, 1892. In the 
midst of life we were in death. A person would be 
attacked at 10 a.m., and at 5 p.m. was being borne out 
of the village for burial. One evening I was hastily 
summoned to a heartrending scene in a Christian 
household. . Two children had been attacked with the 



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A Plague-marked House, Broadway. Bangalore. 

fell disease that day. The boy of nine lay partly 
conscious, but a glance sufficed to show that the two- 
year-old baby was already in its death struggle. The 
mother, holding fast the gasping child in her arms, was 
beating her breast, tearing her hair, and screaming 
wildh'. The father, a silent, reserved man, seemed 
petrified, and did not even hear what he was asked to 
do. Three little boys crouched together awe-struck, far 
too terrified to join in the pitiful wailing of the mother. 



84 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

" The babe was gathered into the Shepherd's arms, 
and laid to rest that night, and as the sorrowing father 
returned from the sad rite, the elder boy breathed his 
last. After the first wild grief, the mother's heart 
opened to comfort, and now she is able to look forward 
to the glad day of re-union, when ' them who sleep 
in Jesus will God bring with Him.' " 

During that year, cholera swept over the Christian 
villages of Nuddea in a more terrible manner than ever 
before. Miss Dawe, accompanied by Mr. Ireland 
Jones, then the superintending C.M.S. Missionary, 
immediately went into the midst of the sick and dying. 
From the centre, Bollobhpur, they visited all the sur- 
rounding villages, carrying and distributing medicines, 
and gathered the people together for united prayer. 
Through God's blessing on these heroic efforts, very 
many lives were saved, two-thirds of those attacked 
recovering. But in heathen districts, where there was 
no one to render help, the mortality was terrible : 
whole famdies died, and whole villages were emptied. 

Rapidity of death in the East never ceases to appal 
the European worker. The cholera scourge swept 
ruthlessly over Naihati in i8gg, mowing down the 
victims in a few hours. Evening by evening a proces- 
sion paraded the infected quarter, chanting to the gods 
that their wrath might be appeased and the evil stayed, 
while tom-toms were beaten vigorously and a bell 
was tolled at intervals. 

The Misses F. and M. Leslie, wTiting home at that 
time, said : — 

" The visitation has taken from our schools the 
child we loved best, and whom everybod}- loved who 
knew her, for her unusually beautiful, unselfish char- 
acter. She was in school one day, and in Glory the 
next. She had not waited for death to give clear evi- 
dence that she was Christ's, and, when dying, told her 
father she was going to the new House prepared for 
her. The mother and four children were all down wath 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 85 

cholera, but only little Rani (which means Queen) was 
taken, and in the Homeland she will not remember 
that the last bit of the way was rough. It was short 
but terrible suffering." 

It may easily be supposed that Kashmir, famous for 
its exquisite scenery, notorious for its untold filth, is 
subject to periodical ravages of the same scourge. 
Indeed, the marvel is that cholera ever leaves a soil so 
fertile for the microbes of disease. 

Miss Hull, our senior Missionary, whose work we 
have elsewhere referred to, writing from the capital, 
Srinagar, in 1892, drew a vivid picture of the smitten 
city and district : — 

" In these last six weeks, Kashmir, with all its 
beauty of sky, mountain and lake, can be best described 
in Longfellow's lines : — 

" 'The air is full of farewells to the dyinj^-, 
And mournings for the dead.' 

" Day after day, the sad death-roll has been recorded 
upon the doors of the Public Library — the numbers 
mounting even to 399 in a single day, that being 
the highest figure. Over five thousand are among the 
slain, while life, ever uncertain, has become to this 
poor people so vivid an uncertainty that they seem 
to be generally just sitting waiting for the awful visitor. 

" Let me paint for you the city, as I saw it, a 
fortnight after it had become evident to the inhabitants 
that cholera had taken possession. Only a fortnight 
before, fire had broken out and laid about 9,000 houses 
in ruins. We passed in our little boat down the river 
between the ruins on either side. The sad idol temples, 
protected by metal-plated roofs, glittering in the sun- 
light, were alone standing in the long stretch of ruins, 
and seemed to mock with their heartless glitter their 
poor, homeless devotees. Here and there a lone 
woman or child seemed to be groping amid the ashes 
for lost treasures. Such a scene of desolation I have 
seldom witnessed. But I was scarcely prepared for 



86 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

what was to be seen further on, beyond the ravaj^es of 
the lire. 

" Here a strange stillness reigned — the house 
windows were closed, no gay groups of men talking 
over their annas and pice; no little groups of Hindu 
women at the landing-places, scouring their brass 
vessels into mirrors, while the usually busy little 
boats were tied in rows to the river's edge — forsaken by 
the boatmen. I landed in the great bazaar, where one 
is usually assaulted by eager sellers : — ' Come, see my 
shop.' ' You have never seen m}^ shop, I sell best 
papier indchc.' No, up the entrance-way I walked ; every 
door was fast shuttered. 

"A few Pathans were sitting by the wayside, so 
I asked where all the shop people were : — 

" ' Dead, Meni Sahib, dead.' 

" I passed on into the Central Square, where usually 
one picks one's way with difficulty among buyers and 
sellers, but to-day in the city of the dead there was 
ample space. Two shops were still open. ' The air' 
(the local name for the cholera) had laid them low. 
' The wind passeth over it and // is gone, and the place 
thereof shall know it no more.' 

" I now turned to the special object of my expedi- 
tion. Into a large house, through gateway after gate- 
way, we passed into the women's apartments. A 
melancholy assent was all we received to our question 
if we should enter — a great change from the almost 
boisterous greeting our advent generally met with from 
some half-dozen daughters of one of the richest city 
merchants. To the question ' How is the knitting 
going on ? ' I received the melanchoh' answer : — 

" ' Oh, we now do nothing but sit still.' 

"The speaker's fair face was the picture of 
hopeless terror ; ' we neither eat nor work now from 
fear.' 

" ' Are you all well ? ' I asked — though the question 
was useless, as it is a part of the whole thing that 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 87 

none can even bring themselves to speak the dreaded 
word that cholera had entered their home. 

" I asked a young woman, ' Are all well in your 
village ? ' 

" ' Yes, all well.' 

'' * You are not speaking the truth,' I said. 

"'Oh, Moji Sahib!' she said, coming closer and 
speaking in almost a whisper, ' I can't bring it on my 
tongue ; my husband is dead, and three or four have got 
it here.' 

" In the aforenamed house, the words had scarcely 
passed the young girl's lips when a scared-looking 
servant rushed in. ' Dead ! dead ! ' she screamed, and 
our pupils vanished, screaming too. 

" A boy led us to another room, where a wee girl 
lay in the last stage of unconsciousness ; so two, at 
least, had been dying in that house alone, where they 
had told us all were well. 

" We go nowhere without the needed medicines, 
and in one or two cases, with God's blessing, have been 
able to stop the first stage of the disease." 

South India is not exempt from ravages by this foe, 
or as the people term the epidemic, a " visit from the 
cholera goddess." In Tinnevelly, where the crudest 
forms of heathenism abound, the frightened inhabitants 
of a village will hang up decapitated dogs on trees, one 
at each corner of a village, so that at whichever side 
the goddess may enter, she will be obliged to turn 
away in disgust at the horrible sight, and the people 
will be left in peace. 

Among "their several necessities," leprosy ranks 
uniquely high upon the list of woes overtaking our 
brethren and sisters in oriental lands. It is estimated 
that in India alone there are 500,000 of these " most 
helpless, hopeless sufferers on God's earth." Although 
our Society has no special organization dealing with 
them, our Missionaries, in both India and China, are 
called upon to minister spiritual comfort to these 



88 



BETWEEN' LIFE AND DEATH 



isolated sufferers ; and, not infrequently, to receive the 
untainted children of lepers as very special charges. 

By a general consensus of medical opinion, it is 
conceded that leprosy is not hereditary, and, although 
not infectious, is contagious to only such a small degree 
that almost all workers among lepers are exempt. 
India is said to have half a million lepers, and China 
has, probably, a like number. The disease may cer- 
tainly be regarded as incurable, the Berlin Conference 
verdict being, " The disease has hitherto resisted all 
efforts to cure it." 




A Leper. 



In the Himalayas, to be a leper is to incur the 
death penalty ; and in many places where the lepers 
are not allowed to be put to death they are treated 
with great barbarity, often driven out of house and 
home, sometimes being stoned away from their villages. 
These pitiable objects are often women and children of 
tender years. They will wander away into the jungle, 
or shelter themselves in caves, eking out a miserable 
existence, living on roots or whatever may chance to 
be thrown to them by passers-by. In many instances 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 89 

the poor victims of this disease are absolutely helpless, 
having lost fingers and toes, hands and feet, sight and 
speech — " the quintessence of human misery." No 
class, surely, in all the world, more needs the comfort 
of the Gospel of Christ, 

In India, and China, individual Missionaries of our 
own and kindred Societies have ministered to the 
lepers of the districts where they were working. Many 
names might be mentioned of those doing truly noble 
work ; and we cannot forbear to mention Miss Reed's 
pathetic story, which has sent a thrill of sympathy 
around the world. How she herself discovered that 
she had become a victim to the disease ; how she 
determined to consecrate the rest of her life to her 
fellow sufferers ; how she took up her abode in a leper 
settlement in a lonely spot in the Himalayas; and how 
wonderfully the progress of the disease, in her case, has 
been stayed, as she believes, in answer to prayer which 
has ascended from Christians all over the world, are 
now matters of history. 

The Mission to Lepers in India and the East was 
the first society founded wholly for the physical and 
spiritual benefit of lepers. It is at work in fifty-six 
centres, and in China more particularly is in touch 
with our Fuh-kien band of Missionaries. In her book. 
Save Some, Miss Marion Hook takes her readers to a 
leper village, a short walk from the Mission Compound 
in Lo Nguong, where, in a few small houses, upwards 
of a hundred men, women, and children are living, all 
afflicted with the loathsome disease. Around the 
village, the hills are dotted with horseshoe-shaped 
tombs — the lepers' graves. Near by stands the Leper 
Church, built by the Society we have named. 

It was not until 1896 that the opportunity came for 
the C.E.Z.M.S. ladies to visit regularly the settlement 
on the hill. But within a twehemonth the Gospel 
seed took root in these oppressed hearts, and, while all 
had expressed their desire to become Christians, 



yo BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

several were being definitely prepared for baptism. 
The large hall given up to idols was dismantled, 
and now not an idol is left. The story of one dear 
woman, who brightly confessed Christ on her death- 
bed, was a sample of the " signs following" the Word 
spoken, and a wonderful trophy of Divine grace. 

As a class, the lepers are very responsive to the 
Gospel, exceedingly grateful for any kindness shown to 
them, and very genuine when converted. Some of 
them have been known to deny themselves a whole 
day's food that they may share with other Christians 
the privilege of giving to Mission work ! 

One lady Missionary tells us that her Bible Class 
for leper women is one of the happiest afternoons in 
the week. " Often have I heard those women thank 
God for letting them be lepers, because otherwise 
perhaps they would have never heard of Him, and cer- 
tainly would not have been so willing to receive the 
Saviour. And they would say, ' When we come to the 
other life, when we see Jesus as He is, we shall not be 
as we are now, shall we ? We shall be like other 
people, we shall not take these bodies into that life 
beyond ! ' The thought filled them with joy and hope." 

Miss Darley, of Kien-Ning, speaks of the " sad, sad 
sights " to be witnessed in the Leper Settlement outside 
the city — a mere collection of sheds. 

" Poor people ! their faces brighten up when 
Heaven is spoken of, and they say, over and over 
again, 'In Hea\en no sickness, no trouble!' God's 
peace is stamped upon some of their marred faces." 

The pathetic story of little Bessie, the girl medical 
student at St. Catharine's, xA.mritsar, who de\oted her 
own blighted life to ministering to others stricken with 
the same fell disease, is told in Behind the Pardah. Dr. 
Charlotte Vines, of Tarn Taran, tells a pathetic 
incident of leper patients and their agonized parting 
with their untainted infant, whom with heroic 
unselfishness they gave o^•er to the English Mission- 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 91 

aries to bring up. Many such children are being 
received by our workers at Tarn Taran. 

But not only the pestilence-smitten and the lepers 
claim our sympathies. The blind demand our care, 
and our Missionaries are making very special efforts to 
reach them, and teach them, if they cannot heal. 

In England the proportion of blind to the seeing is 
one to a thousand, while in India it is as one to 
five hundred.* In China, the same state of things 
exists, and in both countries small-pox is a frequent 
cause of total blindness in both eyes. 

The Rev. A, M. Cunningham, U.S.A., remarks, " It 
mjy be that the Chinaman's heavily curtained and 
diminutive eyes may be accounted for by rimless hats, 
intense sunlight, sandy and windy plains, but as causes 
which account, at least in part, for the awful 
prevalence of blindness, we would mention the 
following : uncured ophthalmia, small-pox, leprosy, 
and other loathsome diseases, and that of parents 
ruthlessly putting out the eyes of their own children 
with the hope that, thus deprived of external vision, 
they may have, in a fuller measure, an internal vision, 
i.e., power to read the thoughts of other hearts, which 
will enable them to become successful fortune-tellers, 
and thus bring a little more cash into the family 
treasury. Very many sightless girls are taken to fill 
houses of ill-fame. Loss of natural eyesight seems 
to be followed by a loss of moral vision and sense 
of social purity." 

The largest work among the blind undertaken by 
our Society is that connected with St. Catherine's 
Hospital, Amritsar. There are five hundred thousand 
blind persons in India, and a very large proportion of 
these are helpless women and children. This fact was 
burnt into the souls of our workers in that great city of 
the Punjab, and stirred them to vigorous efforts on 
their behalf. Miss Hewlett, in her thrilling book 
' T/uy shall see His Face. B)- S. S. Hewlett. Chap. \'. 



92 BETWEEN LIEE AND DEATH 

They shall sec His Face, tells of an aged woman, blind, 
and bedridden on account of a fractured thigh never 
properly set. She had been turned out of her home to 
die by friends who were tired of her, and was brought 
into St. Catherine's. The old, handsome Kashmiri 
woman was often admired by visitors, but whatever 
there was of interest in that fine old face soon gained a 
new beauty as light gained entrance to the dark mind, 
and poor, blind Khotano became a believer. She was 
among the first of the blind over whom the Amritsar 
workers could rejoice in the certainty that they had 
seen "the King in His beauty." 

It had been a frequent cause of sadness at 
St. Catherine's that so many cases of hopeless blind- 
ness had to be sent away unrelieved, and at last it was 
determined that a class for them should be established. 
In 1886 a small knitting class was opened, and two or 
three blind women were persuaded to join it, receiving 
a few pice weekly as payment ; but the opening of a 
permanent school for the blind was ultimately brought 
about by the reception of Asho, a converted, blind girl, 
who, for many years, has been the teacher of the 
Braille system of reading for the blind in the large 
school under Miss A. Sharp's care. No pains have 
been spared to improve, step by step, the industrial 
part of the school, which is in two divisions — for men 
and boys, and for women and girls. Doormats from a 
sort of rope produced from an indigenous rush, willow- 
wo\e baskets, wicker-work chairs, window and door 
blinds known in India as chiqqs, a binding like English 
webbing, called iiawar, and the spinning of cotton, are 
all wonderfully well produced or carried on by the 
" blindies," who prove marvellously apt pupils ; while 
heart after heart, brought under the influence of the 
Gospel, yields to Christ. Not a few are becoming 
])ible-\\omen to their own people, and there can be 
no more touching or remarkable story than that of 
Jiwan, who is leading her Indian sisters to Christ, as 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 



93 



they lie in the wards of St, Catherine's Hospital, 
listening to her bhajaiis and reading of God's Word. 

Stories of blind children received into the shelter of 
St. Catherine's Hospital asylum would fill a volume. 
It is work which must have a fruitful future. Very 
difficult indeed it is to realize that the boys, full of 
spirits and romping to their hearts' delight in their 
safely railed-in playground — the flat roof of the 
Hospital, some forty feet above the city street — are 
blind. Just as fearless and fleet-footed as sighted 
children, they 
play at blind- 
man's buff, and 
run races with 
each other in 
the public gar- 
dens, while an 
accident is an un- 
heard-of occur- 
rence. 

In i8g8. Miss 
Codrington was 
led to open a 
School for the 
blind in Kucheng 
City, special gifts 
reaching her for 
the purpose, and 
twenty-two men 
and six women, 
with three help- 
ers, were at once 
received. One or 
two cases ad- 
mitted of treat- 
ment, and the native doctor was able to perform 
one operation successfully. The lirst inmate who 
died, an old man of sixty-four, gave evidence of truly 




94 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

trusting in Christ ; and an old woman, too feeble to 
learn much, except orally, seized firm hold of the 
fact that Jesus died to save her, and rejoiced in it, 
saying constantly, " I must trust Jesus every 
moment." 

But we have not exhausted the list of those whose 
maladies constitute such a special claim upon our 
Missionaries' sympathies. 

Closely allied, in the native mind, with any peculiar 
affliction, such as those to which we have been referring 
(especially to that of deafness and dumbness), is the 
idea of devil-possession. In all parts of India and 
China, we have seen that sickness of any kind is 
believed to be associated with evil spirits ; but the 
evidences of definite demon-possession, especially in 
China, have been peculiarly impressive. Again and 
again our Missionaries are called upon to " cure " such 
afflicted ones, and very remarkable are their experi- 
ences of the change wrought through the power of 
prayer. Christian influence, and treatment. From their 
own people the poor sufferers are often subjected to the 
greatest barbarity ; or, at least, their misery is aggra- 
vated by resources suggested by superstition. Many 
die of neglect or starvation, although their relatives 
may be spending all they have to cure them by fees to 
conjurors, who pretend to discover the cause of illness 
by meaningless and absurd signs. 

The Rev. R. Evans (W.C.M.M.S.), of Assam, tells 
of diviners in every village, called "egg-breakers." 
The family of the sick person buy a basketful of eggs, 
no matter how old they are. The egg-breaker sits 
down, and begins conjuring by throwing a few grains of 
rice on his board several times, and washing them away 
again with water. Then, standing up, and taking an 
egg in his right hand, he throws it with force on the 
board so that it breaks. It is by the pieces of shell he 
professes to discover the cause of the disease. If cer- 
tain pieces lie concave or convex on the board, they are 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 95 

supposed to indicate whether the person will die or 
live. So, one egg after another is broken, until some 
sign is given which is interpreted to suit the idea of the 
conjuror. All this is done in front of the house, and 
takes place day after day, as long as the person is ill ; 
while he or she, meanwhile, lies and groans without 
attention. 

Dr. Annie Fearn (Am. Meth. Epis.), of Soochow, 
says that thirty per cent, of all the patients who come 
to her for treatment say that their troubles began with 
"great anger." The Chinese are subject to peculiarly 
violent fits of rage, which frequently terminate in 
insanity. 

" It is not an infrequent occurrence, while out for a 
walk, to hear the sudden cry of ' Save life ! save life ! ' 
and to come upon a man, or woman, or even a child, 
who has been the cause of the great anger, frantically 
calling for help to avert fatal consequences." 

Miss Bryer relates one of the triumphs of the 
Gospel in the case of one poor Chinese woman, and 
many similar instances might be recorded : — 

" A young girl came one day and asked us to go 
and see her mother, and teach her how to worship God, 
so that she might be set free from the possession of the 
fox-devil. So convinced was this poor woman that she 
was under the power of this demon, that she had been 
seriously ill, and her untidy appearance, dishevelled 
hair, pale, worn face, were proofs of the reality of her 
fear. It was simply wonderful how she laid hold of the 
fact that God is stronger than the devil, and therefore 
could protect her. Her mind was so dark, that it was 
only by teaching her one truth at a time that she could 
retain anything. But ere long her face was an index 
that the darkness was giving place to the light. On 
one occasion she was away in the fields grinding her 
rice ; turning round, with a bright smile, she said, ' I 
am not afraid to come here now, for I know God is here 
too, and if I call He will hear me, will He not ? ' " 



()6 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Our list of physical woes that overtake the people td 
whom our JMedical Missionaries minister would not be 
complete without alluding to the curse which the opium 
habit brings upon its victims. True, it is a self-inflicted 
evil, and cannot be classed among ills to which flesh is 
heir, but none the less baneful are its effects and piti- 
able its captives. For captive indeed that man or 
woman is who has an appetite for the pernicious drug. 

The storm-centre of the vice is China. Through- 
out her length and breadth, even in her far western 
provinces, it prevails to a frightful extent. In that re- 
markable book, China's Only Hope, written by a remark- 
able man, Chang Chih Tung, the greatest \'iceroy 
China has ever known, the following indictment 
against the habit occurs, under the title, " Cast Out 
the Poison " : — 

" The Customs Returns for the past few years give 
the value of our imports at 80,000,000 taels, and the 
exports at 50,000,000 taels. The balance of 30,000,000 
taels represents what has been consumed in smoking 
the pernicious opium pipe ! Assuredly it is not foreign 
intercourse that is ruining China, but this dreadful 
poison ! Oh, the grief and desolation it has wrought 
to our people ! Opium has spread with frightful rapid- 
ity and heartreading results through the provinces. 
Millions upon millions have been struck down by the 
plague. To-day it is running like \\ild-fire. In its 
swift, deadl}- course it is spreading devastation every- 
where, wrecking the minds and eating away the 
strength and wealth of its victims. The ruin of the 
mind is the most woful of its many deleterious effects. 
The poison enfeebles the will, saps the strength of the 
body, renders the consumer incapable of performing his 
regular duties, and unfit for travel from one place to 
another. . . . Unless something is soon done to 
arrest this awful scourge in its devastating march, the 
Chinese people will be transformed into satyrs and 
devils ! . . . Many thoughtful Chinese are appre- 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES gj 

hensive that opium will finally extirpate the race, and 
efforts are being made to mitigate the curse. All the 
countries of the world recoil with disgust at the idea of 
smoking this vile, ill-smelling, poisonous stuff. Only 
our Chinese people love to sleep and eat with the 
deadly drug, and in the deadly drug we are self-steeped, 
seeking poverty, imbecility, death, destruction. In all 
her history, China has never been placed in such 
frightful circumstances." 

In order to satisfy his craving, a man will rob 
his house of every comfort, and then sell his wife and 
children. Dr. Kate Woodhull, U.S.A., remarks: — 

"An intemperate man will sometimes be himself 
again and show some love for his family. We have 
heard of a 'drunkard who was reformed by seeing his 
wife's tears drop into a cup of water she gave him 
to drink. He vowed he would never drink his wife's 
tears again, and he kept his word. But an opium 
smoker could drink his wife's tears unmoved." 

The Misses Rodd and Bryer, when visiting Nang- 
Chong, twenty-four miles from Nang-Wa, came across 
an old woman between 70 and 80 years of age, deserted 
by two of her sons, opium-smokers ; the third, also 
addicted to this vice, had just enough conscience left to 
keep her from starvation. "The poor, old woman was 
so bowed down with the misery of her life, that at first 
she could not get beyond putting two wasted fingers to 
her mouth in imitation of chopsticks, and exclaiming 
often with tears, ' Ku-chui, ^w-c/rz«" !' (wretched, miser- 
able!) When she heard of Jesus' love, and the Home 
He had prepared for her, her one desire was to go there 
at once. She would turn to us and say, ' Tell Jesus to 
fetch me quickly, quickly ! ' at the same time flapping 
her arms like wings, to add weight to her words. As 
we looked at her poor, emaciated body, we felt quite 
justified in comforting her and telling her it would not 
be long now before Jesus Christ came for her." Hers 
was one of the many cases which prove how utterh' 

H 



98 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

opium can destroy the natural affection, usually so 
strong in binding members of a Chinese family together. 

Recently, in the Kien Ning Women's Hospital, a 
poor woman with three little boys took refuge from 
her husband. Her story was desperately sad. The 
man was an opium-eater, caring for nothing else, and 
having lost sense of right and wrong. A few months 
before he had sold his eldest boy for seventy dollars to 
buy more opium, and, that having almost gone, he had 
threatened to sell the second son ; whereupon the 
mother and her three boys — all of them ill — sought 
refuge in the Hospital. As the distracted woman 
poured her tale of sorrow into the Missionary's ear, she 
added that she could never forget seemg her boy 
dragged away from her door " cr\ing and kicking like 
a pig taken off to be killed." 

But the evil practice is not confined to men. In 
some provinces as many as fifty per cent, of the Chinese 
women are addicted to the same vice. It is quite 
possible that the foot-binding custom is largely respon- 
sible for forming the habit, since opium stills the pain 
and quiets the quivering nerves, and, therefore, very 
naturally, is resorted to medicinally. The sadness, 
too, that surrounds the Chinese \\oman's life often leads 
to the desire to cloud the brain and numb the 
sensibilities. Dr. Fearn says : — 

" One young girl from one of our wealthiest and 
most aristocratic families, when admonished for opium- 
smoking, replied : ' What more can you expect of us ? 
We are women, like you. We ha\e vague ideas of a 
better life. We have no way of escaping from the 
life that is death to us mentally and physically. We 
have women's diseases, and there are no physicians for 
us ; \\'hen we suffer we must take opium until we 
become its sla\'e. We would read and find out for 
ourselves what the world is like, but we ha\'e no 
education ; we would study, but there are no teachers 
for us except through the foreigner; in no other way 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES 99 

can we receive the education that will serve to lift us 
out of the depth of degradation in which we live. In 
no other way can we hope for teachers and physicians 
who will make us what nature intended us to be. 
Without their help there is nothing for us but opium, 
and a life that is worse than death.' This is only one 
of thousands of such cases. Day after day they come 
to us with the same pathetic story." 

The opium pipe to the well-to-do Chinese woman is 
as indispensable as her fan, and the older she grows, 
the stronger does the craving become. 

Yet, recognising the moral and physical injury she 
is inflicting on herself, many a woman comes to the 
Mission Hospital to be cured of the habit she is power- 
less to quit by herself. And indeed, so acute is the 
suffering entailed by relinquishing the use of the drug, 
that it needs, not only fortitude, but a courage born of 
the grace of God. Dr. Arthur Kember, of Hangchow 
Hospital, tells of a woman opium-smoker who was 
in the habit of taking five drachms daily. An opera- 
tion for tumour had to be performed, and, as a 
preliminary, opium had to be prohibited. In order to 
keep her quiet after the operation, and to still the 
awful craving she exhibited, it was absolutely necessary 
at first to give her as much as 8 drachms of liquid 
morphia in a 6oz. mixture. What were the prospects 
of saving this woman ? Almost nil. Only the grace of 
God could deliver her. And hers is an ordinary case. 

The giving up of opium by a confirmed opium- 
smoker is by no means an easy undertaking, not only 
on account of the misery endured whilst being cured, 
but because of the long after-weakness, their poor, 
weakened constitutions missing much the accustomed 
stimulant, for it is that action of the drug which affects 
them most. 

Not long ago, our Missionaries at Sa-Iong were 
greatly encouraged by the determination on the part of 
some of their chair-coolies, victims to the habit, to 



loo BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

renounce their pipes. Rough sheds were quickly 
erected where they could be received and medically 
treated. Several were permanently cured, and became 
earnest Christians. Their testimony was striking: "It 
was not the medicine which cured us, but the pou'cr of 
Jesus." Of one of the number, a fellow coolie re- 
marked, "If that man, who has been a worse slave to 
opium than I myself, can be saved, well, I believe that 
anyone can be saved." 

We cannot dwell upon this terrible evil which 
creates such a " necessity " for the Medical Mission- 
ary's aid in China without referring to the fact that 
upon our British Government lies the awful stain of 
forcing the fatal drug upon an (at first) unwilling 
people. An inconceivably great injustice has been 
done to China, and is still being done. It is a deeply 
painful fact that during a period less by two years than 
the sixty years of our late beloved Queen's reign, the 
quantity of opium exported from India was 263 
thousand tons, an average export of more than half a ton 
for every hour, day and night. 

No wonder that the Chinese revolt from the 
foreigner — in their ignorance charging the Missionary 
and non-Missionary alike for bringing misery, poverty, 
and poison into his land. Could the long array of our 
martyred Missionaries in China rise up to give their 
testimony , the}' would, with one voice, declare that this 
iniquitous trade is one of the foremost obstacles in the 
path of the Gospel to Chinese hearts. They would 
endorse the statement made by Mr. C. Holcombe, for 
many years Secretary of the U.S.A. Legation at Pekin, 
" It has played a large and deadly part in distorting 
the vision, befogging the judgment, and embittering 
the minds of the entire mass of the nation. No 
language can exaggerate the evil results of the habit. 
No honest person who has seen its effects upon the 
Chinese can describe it as other than an awful curse. 
To force it upon China was a crime against humanity. 



THEIR SEVERAL NECESSITIES loi 

It is quite unnecessary to vilif}^ the Missionary body in 
order to discover the cause of the bitter, anti-foreign 
feeling so universal in China. . . . From their 
point of view they have been attacked, and overcome, 
by an unknown and necessarily inferior race for the 
sake of the money which was to be made by forcing 
a deadly poison upon them. . . . That covers the 
whole question. Every victim of the drug — and he is 
everywhere to be found — is a walking advertisement 
and argument for the evil of everything foreign." 

It is a terrible truth that we cannot undo now the 
evil which we have committed in ruining China. 
But may God in His mercy move our nation to repent- 
ance, and our legislators to take action in ceasing to 
enrich our exchequer by such blood-money, as the 
opium revenue surely is ! 

India, too, is suffering from the same awful vice. 
Not only are the ryots employed in poppy cultivation 
for the export of opium to China, but the people 
are becoming addicted to its use with alarming 
rapidity. One of the most distressing aspects of its use 
in India is the habit of giving it to infants to stupify 
them into quietness. Its results are often life-long 
injury in the form of stunted growth and mental 
paralysis. 

Thus we have lightly — and oh ! how lightly — 
touched the fringe of evils that spread like a thick 
curtain of many folds over our brethren and sisters 
in the foreign field. Each "several necessity" is 
surely an eloquent argument for hasting thither the 
foot of the Christian man and woman Missionary of 
medical skill. 

The plea for Christian women surgeons and 
physicians is even stronger than the claim for fully- 
qualified men. For if, even in England, many 
women prefer to be treated by one of their own sex, 
how much the women of Oriental lands (especially 
those where the pardah system prevails) must 



I02 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

appreciate women-doctors ! Forbidden by etiquette 
to hold any communication with men except those 
who are near relatives, it is, as a rule, impossible for 
them to obtain medical relief unless a medical woman 
be at hand, to whom they can come without reserve. 

Christian lady doctor, nursing sister, medical 
student — is there not a cause why you should leave the 
crowded home-field and answer that "' accident bell 
reverberating round the world " ? 

Do you not hear the strong crying of a great need 
unrealized before? And are you not conscious that it 
could be met by your own life-service ? Why do you 
hc^^itate ? What hinders ? 



F^f^^ 




CHAPTER V 



WOUNDED LAMBS 

or 
Healing the Cliildreri. 

" Do you hear the children 
weeping, O my brothers?" 

" It is not the will of your 
Father, which is in Heaven, 
that one of these little ones 
should perish." — St. Matt, 
xviii. 14." 

" Love me too ! " The 
speaker was a little, dark- 
haired, maiden, and her 
big, brown eyes were 
welling up with tears. 
She was one of the de- 
serted child-wives of 
India's shadowed house- 
holds. Lame and help- 
less from a diseased knee 
joint, and so, useless as a 
slave to him, her husband 
had turned her out upon 
the roadside to die. The 
A Kashmiri Boat Girl. pitiable little crouchiug 

figure drew the attention of a police officer, who 
brought her to the nearest Christian Mission Hospital, 




io6 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

where now she was being tenderly and speedily 
nursed back to health. 

It was the hour of evening prayer, and the Doctor 
Miss Saliiba had lifted upon her knee the baby of the 
ward, also a deserted girl, whose mother, having vainly 
tried to sell her for twenty rupees, had left her behind 
as a worthless impediment. The little child-wife 
hungrily watched the gentle caresses of the white hand 
on the wee brown head that nestled confidingly on 
the Missionary's shoulder, and, slipping off the 
Hospital bed, she crept up to the pair. Taking 
the good doctor's hand in hers, she laid it on her 
own bare head and uttered the wistful cry, "Love 
me too ! " 

A few months later, the same wee patient, now well 
and strong, was happily sheltered for life in a Christian 
home. Visited by her first friend, the Doctor Miss 
Saliiba, in answer to her question, " Mohini, do you 
love the Lord Jesus now ? " the fervent reply came 
" Oh, so much ! " 

Love me too ! It is the cry, uttered or unexpressed, 
of each little sufferer who enters our Mission Hospital 
wards. Each young heart is yearning for some of the 
love that the English mother pours out upon her sick 
child, and which, in numberless cases, it has never 
known. 

Yet it must not be imagined that parental love is 
rarcl}' shown by the Indian or Chinese father or mother. 
Far from this being the case, intense love for and 
pride in their children is exhibited again and again by 
even the least intelligent, and an apparent want of 
affection and tenderness in nearly all cases may be 
traced, not to callousness or cruelty, so much as to 
crass ignorance, gross superstition, and bondage to 
caste and custom. The children's lives are cursed by 
the same blight as that which envelops their parents. 

" It is heartrending," says a Missionar}- doctor, "to 
go among the villages of India and find what great 



WOUNDED LAMBS 107 

multitudes there are diseased for life — blind, lame, 
deaf and dumb, beyond the possibility of cure, because 
in earliest infancy the simplest remedies were not 
available. A child's eyes are inflamed ; the simplest 
and cheapest remedies would cure them ; but through 
neglect, the child becomes hopelessly blind for life." 

It is very sad to see some of the little children in 
India who are brought to the Dispensaries for treat- 
ment. So thin, so neglected, so prematurely old and 
grave do they appear, victims to the neglect, the 
ignorance and superstition of their elders. 

At the Ratnapur Dispensary, for a long time, a 
little boy was brought daily by his grandmother. A 
Brahmin had tied a "sacred" cord round his wrist, 
and it had become so tight as to eat its way into the 
flesh. The cord had been cut off, but his hand was 
dreadfully swollen, and there was a cut of about half 
an inch deep all round the wrist. 

A Bible-woman, coming home from her work in 
Amritsar one day, saw a poor little creature coughing 
terribly and begging for pice. The figure was quite 
short, but the face was so old and drawn with pain, 
that it was hard to tell whether it belonged to a child 
or an old woman. It was really that of a little girl of 
perhaps ten years old, a child whose parents belonged 
to the shoemakers' caste, and were extremely super- 
stitious. For some reason or another, ttiey believed 
that Poonya was bewitched, and tried in numberless 
brutal ways to cast out the evil spirit from her. Tying 
the poor child by a rope, they let her hang by a beam 
in the roof, and while hanging the}' beat her unmercifully 
with a stick ; or again, they would sprinkle boiling oil 
over her naked body. At last they turned her into the 
street, hoping that she would soon die of hunger. It 
was about six months afterwards that the Bible woman 
found the child very ill and hardly able to walk. Poor 
little suffering Poonya ! She was tenderly nursed in 
the Mission Hospital, fed and warmly clothed, but her 



io8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Heav^enly Father only let her stay on earth long 
enough to learn of His love, before He took her to His 
bright Home above. 

" My baby is always crying," said a Palamcottah 
mother one day to Miss Swainson. "Well," replied 
the Missionary, " I do not wonder that it cries. Look 
at that sore place on its forehead^ — how did it come ? " 
and the woman confessed that her neighbour had 
recommended her to pour oil on some cotton wool, and 
then laying it on the infant's forehead, to set fire to it, 
in order to cure the child's sore eye. As a natural 
result, the poor little thing had almost lost the sight of 
both eyes. 

Miss Dora White, M.B. (z.b.m.m.), says : — 
" The infant mortality of Hyderabad is great, as 
the ignorant prejudices of the mothers, and especially 
of the grandmothers, bear heavily upon children during 
the first few years of their lives. The Indian baby's 
woes commence with the first hour of its life, as it 
is washed by the dhai in the most reckless fashion, 
being held upside down indiscriminately, having all its 
limbs pulled and shampooed, its head pressed in, its 
nose pulled out. Sec. No clothes are put on until the 
sixth day, but it is smeared with a quantity of oil, 
its brows are well blackened, and it is dosed with 
castor oil and a concoction consisting of forty 
different herbs every day. It is also a superstition 
that a child should not be washed again till the fourth 
year of its life. Among the superior classes, the 
child is not allowed out of the room in which it was 
born till it is a year old at least." 

The author of Within tlic Pardali gives a most 
graphic typical sketch of two scenes in her Sindhi 
consulting-room, \\here wee patients are brought in 
to her for treatment. 

" The mother, a tin}- woman, not larger than a 
child of ten in this country, makes her way slowly, step- 
forward, and unwrapping from the folds of her garment 



WOUNDED LAMBS 109 

an infant, she lays it on the table before you. Its arms 
and leo^s are tightly bound down, stiff and straight, by 
strong strips of cotton cloth. This is the custom 
throughout the district of Sindh. Be it a boy or a 
girl, be it Hindu or Mahommedan, all are thus strapped 
during the first months of their existence, so that the 
slight exercise, relaxation and rest, which an un- 
trammelled baby naturally gets from tossing its limbs 
about, is denied to infants here. These strips of cloth 
are tied so tightly about the soft, emaciated limbs, that 
you can almost bury your finger in the groove caused 
by this pressure. But it is not for their condition w^e 
are consulted. The child-mother turns the infant on 
its side, and you see that the whole back of the head 
has been crushed until it is quite flat. It is swollen, 
hot, and inflamed, and in the centre of the head, at the 
back, there is a running sore about the size of a shilling. 

"Every child born of heathen parents in Sindh is, 
immediately after birth, placed upon a solid stone bed. 
Its head rests lower than its trunk, and in order that 
the child may not slide off headwise, and be injured, a 
little ledge is arranged as a headpiece. During the 
day, every two or three hours, some member of the 
father-in-law's famih-, with the strong palm of the 
hand, presses the soft, mobile little head against this 
hard stone, until it becomes quite flat at the back, the 
forehead protrudes, and above each ear large protuber- 
ances appear, almost resembling horns. This practice 
goes on during all the early months of the infant's life, 
until the head remains in this distorted shape. All 
this for beauty's sake. It is the fashion in that part 
of India, and must be followed, even though the 
practice result in the death of the child, which is 
often the case. 

" We give the infant into the hands of our surgical 
nurse, asking her to syringe the wound, place a little 
pillow of surgeon's cotton over and around it, and to 
bandage it nicely. This done, we restore the little one 



no BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

to its mother's arms, giving strict injunctions not to 
again place it upon its stone bed, and not in any case to 
remove the bandage, but to bring it back again to- 
morrow to have the wound dressed. She does not 
return for several weeks. When she does, we discover 
that the bandages have been removed, and perceive by 
the condition of the wound that the crushing process 
has been persisted in, despite the fever which it has 
caused, and the evident debility of the child. We 
begin to upbraid the little woman. We tell her that she 
is no mother, that it is cruel, unnatural for her thus to 
torture her little one, that she has no love for her babe. 
At these words, the tiny mother, with a gesture 
expressive of utter helplessness, and a look of entreaty, 
exclaims : ' O Doctor SaJiiba, what can I do ? It is 
our custom.' And then she adds in a still more helpless 
way, ' I have a cruel mother-in-law.' 

" Of course, the little head is dressed again as 
before, and the patient and mother are sent away with 
stronger orders than ever ; but she never again returns 
— not, at least, for the sake of the child. Some months 
later she does come back to consult us in regard to an 
older child, and when we interrogate her concerning 
her baby, she tells us in a sad way that it is dead. 

"Another infant in the arms of her young mother 
is brought to us. Upon examination, we find the little 
limbs tightly bandaged down, and the head crushed; 
the wee ears have been pierced every one-eighth of an 
inch all round the rims, and dirtx'-looking, black 
woollen strings have been inserted in the freshly- 
wounded tender flesh. The nose also, both right and 
left nostrils, and the centre portion, have been pierced, 
and the woollen strings have so irritated the wounds, 
that both nose and ears have become enormously 
swoollen. If we are new in Sindh, and have not yet 
learned how utterly useless it is to fight against these 
iron-bound customs, we shall probably follow our first 
imperative impulse — clip the strings, and remove them 



Wounded lambs in 

from the ears and nostrils, afterwards passing the child 
to the nurse, with instructions to syringe with disin- 
fectant solution and dress the wounds properly. This 
done, we give instructions to the mother to allow the 
bandages to remain, and to bring back the child to the 
Dispensary to-morrow. The mother does not return 
with the child for many days. When, finally, she does 
return, she approaches timidly, and with apparent 
shamefacedness. She does not carry her infant, but 
her mother-in-law follows on behind with the babe in 
her arms, while the little mother comes toward us, 
bowing at every step, until her forehead almost touches 
the floor. The mother-in-law now comes forward, and 
lays the infant on the table before you. The bandages 
have been removed from the head, black strings have 
again been inserted, and the child is in a worse condi- 
tion, if possible, than on the occasion of the first visit. 
The little mother now interposes, and begs that you do 
not again remove the strings from her babj^'s ears, but 
that you give some lotion or ointment which can be 
applied, and which will cause the wounds to heal, while 
the strings remam in their places, adding, with all the 
emphasis which she is capable of expressing, that if 
you remove them, she cannot again bring the child to 
the Dispensary, because her family will have other 
strings inserted immediately upon her return. The 
strings, she declares, must remain, because her little 
girl is soon to be married, and then ornaments will be 
inserted in place of the strings. The native Indian has 
a conviction that the English ointment is an infallible 
cure-all. If we are wise we shall accede to the wish of 
the little mother. We will not again cut the strings 
from the baby's ears and nostrils, but we will have 
the wounds syringed and give her some lotion or oint- 
ment, which will facilitate the healing of the wounds, 
even while the strings remain. By this means 
we shall be able to relieve the sufferings of our 
little patient ; whereas, if we were to cut the 



tii 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



strings, the mother would never again return to the 
Dispensary." 

Very frequently small boys are brought as patients 
toour Zenana Mission Hospitals. Dr. A. G. Lillingston 
tells of a wee Mahommedan laddie of seven years old 
brought to her with a broken leg. Eight days before, 
when the accident happened, the fracture was not 
serious, but it had been bound up, rather than set, by 
a native hakim. When the Doctor Miss Saliiba undid 

the bamboo splints and black 
rags that were round it, she 
found a most dreadful wound, 
and the foot swollen and 
pulpy. 

In vain the father was en- 
treated to bring the child into 
the Hospital. He said he 
must at any rate first take 
him back to his mother in a 
village five miles away. The 
boy's patience was wonderful. 
Dr. Longmire was at that time 
attending weekly at a Dis- 
pensary close to the child's 
home, and for two or three 
weeks the father brought the 
little sufferer on a doolie-bed to 
see her. 

He was an only child, and 
therefore very precious to both 
parents, but though warned 
that if left at home he would 
certainly lose his foot, and 
probably his life, they steadily refused to take him 
to the Hospital. Becoming impatient, they soon 
transferred him from the Missionaries' treatment to the 
hakim again, and shortly afterwards the wounded lamb 
was gathered into the arms of the Good Shepherd. 




A Little Cripple at Asrapur. 



WOUNDED LAMBS 113 

Mrs. Greaves, from her long Indian experience, 
recalls story after story of suffering Indian childhood. 
Here is one : — 

" ' Where is Indramoti ? ' I inquired, on arriving at 
our village school for little heathen girls, one morning 
in the rainy season in Bengal. I missed my dear little 
pupil who, though always looking thin and sickly, was 
very regular in her attendance. ' Oh ! ' replied the 
teacher, ' she is so ill with fever that she can no longer 
walk to school, and, indeed, I don't wonder, for she 
lives in the most dreadful house. I never go there 
without getting ill myself.' 

" On hearing where it was, I went to look after her, 
and found the teacher's description only too true. 
The outer courtyard was just covered with pools of 
water, into which bricks had been thrown here and 
there as stepping stones. Having safely crossed these, 
I entered through a door into the inner court, where 
the mother \vas busied with her cooking. Walking up 
some steps, slippery with green mould and damp, I 
came to the verandah, and asked, ' W^here is Indra- 
moti ? ' 'In there,' she said, pointing with her hand 
to a low, dark door. 

" I entered and found the room so dark that at first 
nothing could be distinguished. By degrees, however, 
m}' eyes becoming accustomed to the feeble light, I 
saw my little friend lying on a mat on the earthen 
floor. She was burning with fever, and her head was 
resting on a pillow the colour of the floor with dirt. Her 
face and hands looked as if they had not touched water 
for days. If the Hindus cannot have a cold bath (of 
course, in cases of fever, this is most undesirable) they 
never dream of washing in warm water. However, I 
told the mother to get me some, which she brought me 
in a plate about as deep as a soup plate, and tearing 
off the end of her sari, she gave it to me in place of a 
sponge. I washed the little one's hands and face, and 
gave her some fe\'er mixture. This I begged the 

I 



114 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

mother to do every day, though she never attended to 
my request. Turning to her I asked : — 

" ' Have 3'ou no relative or friend to whom you 
could send Indramoti for a change ? Change of air 
is such a good thing for fever ; it is this damp house 
which brings it.' 

" * Oh yes,' she said, ' I have a mother living in the 
next village, but how can I send her there ? Suppose 
she were to die in my mother's house ! ' 

"They think it the most dreadful thing for a death 
to happen in a house, and therefore, when anyone is 
dying, if they cannot have them taken to the river, 
they always carry them outside into the court}-ard. 
Their fear, I believe, is that the spirit of the departed 
would haunt the house. Then I said : — 

" ' Do let me have Indramoti. I cannot be sure 
that she will recover, but I will take such care of her.' 
" ' What! ' she said, 'let my Brahmin child go to 
3^our house ? No, indeed.' 

" Then I found that they were Kulin Brahmins, the 
highest caste of all, and that it would indeed have been 
pollution for her to come to me. 

"I visited m}' dear little pupil constantly, and did 
what I could to help her, but felt it could ba of no 
avail while she was constantly breathing such a 
poisonous atmosphere. At length, one day, as I was 
on my way to her, a little boy said, ' Indramoti is 
dying, and they have taken her to the river.' 

" Poor little girl, I thought, her sufferings are over, 
and I really felt thankful for her. On going to the 
school I spoke solemnly to the children about their 
little schoolfellow, and told them that Jesus had taken 
her to that Happy Land about which they had all so 
often sung together. 

" Presently my native Christian teacher begged me to 
let her go to the river and see Indramoti, so I sent her, 
and not long after she came back to me, sa}-ing, 
' Mem SaJiiba, Indramoti is not dead. She is a little 



WOUNDED LAMBS 115 

better, and wants something to eat, so I have per- 
suaded her father to take her home again. As she is 
only a Httle girl he says he will not be so strict about 
the rules, and he has brought her back.' (It is seldom 
that anyone supposed to be dying and taken to the 
river is ever allowed to return.) 

" I had to catch my train and could not then go to 
the house, but the first thing on the day following I 
hastened there, and found the little girl really looking 
better. The fresh air had done her good, and, as I 
entered, she was in the act of eating her breakfast, and 
what had her mother provided to tempt the appetite 
of the poor little invalid ? There was some green 
vegetable, looking very much like spinach fried in oil, 
in one part of the plate, and a heap of coarse-looking 
rice beside it ! 

" Indramoti had taken a little of the green stuff in 
her fingers and was lifting it to her mouth, when such 
a look of disgust came over her face, and she said, 
' Oh, mother, I cannot eat this,' and, taking it up, 
she threw it on the floor close to her mat, where, in a 
few minutes, it would be black with ants, 

" 1 said to the mother, ' How could you think your 
poor child would eat this ? Why did you not boil some 
rice in milk for her ? At any rate, go and get me some 
milk : she is so weak, and wants nourishing food.' 

" In a few minutes she brought some, but, before I 
knew what she was about, had poured it into the plate 
where all the oil was, and, Avith her hands, began 
mashing it up in the rice. I did not stay to see if the 
poor child could eat it. Perhaps the sight did not dis- 
gust her as much as it did me, but I really felt sick 
at heart ; it seemed as if nothing could be done to 
help in a case where a little care and common-sense 
might have saved a precious life. With such nursing 
and surroundings you will not be surprised to hear that 
in a few days Indramoti was taken to the river not 
again to return. Before a few weeks had elapsed 



ii6 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



three children in that house had died. They had all 
attended our school, and had heard of Jesus, the loving, 
Good Shepherd, and, though Indramoti seemed too 
weak to speak much, I believe that she and her little 
brother and sister are now safe within the Heavenly 
Fold." 

The same indifference, born of superstition and 
ignorance, and the callousness nurtured by a blind 
belief in Fate, obtains with the Singhalese women. 
Miss Karney, of the Gampola Village Mission, tells 

of discovering an utterly 
neglected little one, whose 
feeble lamp ot life would 
soon have flickered out, 
but for God's blessing on 
her timely arrival. 

" A woman was sitting 
on the doorstep nursing 
a fat, chubby little baby, 
and we sat down to 
talk to her. As we talked 
we heard a little moan of 
pain from within, and 
asked, 'What is that? ' 
It was her little daughter's 
voice. She had always 
been delicate, and con- 
stant asthma racked her 
feeble little frame. They 
had once taken her to 
the Hospital, but she 
was no better. What 
to do anythmg ? Her 
horoscope (the future events of a child's life, which 
they pretend to find out by consulting the stars) 
said she was an unlucky child. Why trouble about 
her ? 

*' We asked if we might['go in and see her. Poor 




South Indian. Mother' and Child. 



was the good of try in 



WOUNDED LAMBS n? 

mite ! How our hearts ached for her ! What a si^ht 
met our eyes in the dim hght. She was about five 
years old, and just skin and bones. Lying there, a 
mass of dirt and rags in a hard corner, with no attempt 
at ease or comfort, it seemed as if her Httle chest 
were almost heaving her life out. 

"We quickly collected some ' cloths ' (long pieces of 
cotton or print, which are wound round the body) and 
made a soft bed on the floor, and then we called to 
the mother for some mustard to make a plaster. Can 
you believe it ? she would not stir a finger to help her 
own little daughter, but another woman brought some, 
and soon the breathing became easier and the attack 
passed off. Then at last the mother answered the 
prayer of the pleading little hands, and when she was 
well enough not to bother her, took the little one, who 
loved her unkind mother dearly, into her own arms." 

But, thank God, many of these wounded lambs 
are being rescued. Some few years ago a poor mite 
of a girl was brought into St. Catherme's Hospital at 
Amritsar. She was suffering from a terrible burn, and 
her whole person was nothing but a bag of bones, 
weighing only ten pounds, although three years old. 
She had been kept by an affectionate grandmother 
under a small basket well pressed down, with the 
object, presumably, of extmguishing the little spark 
of life. After many months' care and treatment 
" Cissie " became one of the merriest and bonniest of 
children, sturdy, strong, and intelligent. 

Here is another pathetic picture. Mud walls and 
mud floors, two or three strips of matting, a board 
covered with sand on which the children traced their 
letters, and in the corner of this — a Panjabi low- 
caste school — lay a bundle of rags huddled together. 
"Come, show thyself to the Miss Sahiba, and she will 
have mercy on thee," cried the teacher, glancing 
towards the corner. The bundle began slowly to 
move, and proved to be a girl of about eleven years 



ti8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEaTH 

old. She was ill and almost starved to death, too 
weak either to walk or stand. With great difficulty 
she dragged herself along the ground with her hands, 
and lay stretched out at the Missionary's feet. 

Her story —alas ! all too common — was terribly 
pathetic. Her mother had died some years before 
when "Un-wanted" was quite a little girl. Her 
father had married her to a boy when she was but ten 
years old, although she did not go to her father-in- 
law's house. About six months later " Un-wanted's " 
father died, and the orphan girl, alone in the world, 
was obliged to go to the home of her little husband's 
parents, whom she had never seen before, and who 
quickly turned her into the household drudge, giving 
her plenty of work and little food, which -oon told on 
her fragile frame. A slight sore on her leg soon 
developed into a large and painful wound, making 
walking very difficult, and the harsh mother-in-law 
was quick to say, " If you cannot work you are no 
good here ; we shall get another wife for our son, and 
you must go where you like." 

Poor Un-wanted ! The permission to be at liberty 
was mockery. She contrived painfully to crawl 
sixteen miles, begging a little food by the way, till she 
reached the neighbourhood of her old home near to 
the low-caste school, where the C.E.Z.M.S. lady found 
her on that memorable day, which was to be the 
turning-point in her life. 

Tenderly she was taken up and carried to the 
Mission Hospital and nursed back to health and 
strength, and in five months' time the erstwhile bundle 
of pain and misery was transformed into a tall, strong 
girl, happy and busy all day long in the Christian 
boarding school. 

The custom in India of loading the arms and 
ankles of young brides is well known ; but it is not 
always realized at what a cost to the wearer it is done. 
Apart from the heavy weight which the accummulated 



Wounded lambs tt^ 

ivory, gold, silver, or even leaden circlets entail upon 
the slender limbs, there is absolute agony from the 
want of circulation which they cause. Again we quote 
from the same writer as above.* 

" The bride's arms are covered with tight ivory 
bangles, extending from the wrist close down to the 
hand up to the bend of the elbow. At this point a 
small space is left to allow flexion and extension of the 
joint. Just above the elbow the bangles begin again, 
extending to the shoulder. The bangles are made to 
fit the arm so tightly as to badly callous the wrist, and, 
what is worse, to interfere with the circulation of the 
blood so that the hands become swollen, purple, and 
very painful, while the uncovered space at the elbow 
joint swells enormously, often forming abscesses which 
require to be lanced. These abscesses are intensely 
painful, and yet the mother-in-law will on no 
consideration allow even two or three of these bangles 
to be removed in order to relieve this terrible suffering. 
They, the bangles, are a sign of the child's respectable 
married condition, and to remove them would be a 
disgrace, indicating her widowhood. Indeed, they can 
ne\er be removed during her life, unless her husband 
first die. Now, if you remember that on her wedding 
day she is a mere child, you will know that she must 
grow and is almost sure at one time or another to take 
on flesh, and in either case the pain recurs, abscesses 
forming again and again. However large she may 
become, these bangles, which have cost her father the 
considerable sum of eighty or ninety rupees, are never 
exchanged for a larger size. When they are first 
placed upon her arms they render her almost helpless 
for a week or so ; she is unable to feed herself, to dress 
her hair, or make her own toilet ; so that a friend 
must wait upon her until the tender flesh shrinks away 
from this firm, unyielding pressure, and she becomes 

" Within the Paniah. 



I20 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEAfti 

accustomed to the stiffness, and is thus able to resume 
her daily duties." 

In Hyderabad some few years ago some of the 
women had the courage to leave off their bangles and 
to wear sleeves, as their arms were sore from arrested 
circulation. Six men made their wives take them off, 
but they were so frightened at having broken an old 
custom that they left their homes for a week, and on 
their return found that the women had put on their 
bangles again, and their courage would not rise to a 
second attempt to discontinue them. In Khammamett 
Miss Wells had a great difficulty to persuade the 
father of a little child who had been severely burnt by 
a lamp to break the glass bangles off her poor little 
swollen arms. So strong are the fetters of custom 
which clog soul and spirit and torture the bodies of 
India's child-women and their guardians (?) 

It is unspeakably sad to know how often Indian 
infant girls are allowed to die through sheer neglect. 
They are not killed, as in China, but the frail little life, 
needing such tender care, fails to get it, and the baby 
soul goes to the Saviour Who loves it. Quite recently 
Dr. Wheeler, of Qnetta, had a hard fight to save a 
little one's life, in danger at birth, and, by God's 
help, succeeded. " I said a few words to the father 
about his baby girl, but he replied, " It does not 
matter about the child. There is expense with 
children," and in a late afternoon visit I found that 
the little life was ebbing away. 

Again and again baby girls are forced upon our 
Missionaries by mothers from whose hearts all mother- 
love seems to ha\"e been crushed out, or because the 
mother, having died from mismanagement and neglect, 
the father will not be burdened with a daughter. Few 
of our Stations have not the " Mission Baby." 

No work in the foreign field proves more fascinating, 
more important, or more fruitful than tending the 
lambs, especially the wounded ones. Little hearts are 



WOUXDED LAMBS 12 1 

easily won to the Saviour-Friend of little children. 
Again and again are our Missionaries' hearts gladdened 
by a repetition of some such story as that of wee 
Burria. 

"A name that thrills our hearts is that of little 
Burria. For months she was an invalid with spinal 
trouble. With marvellous patience she lay day after 
day, not caring to move or eat, uncomplaining, asking 
for nothing, and giving no sign of pain or weariness, 
unless a careless touch forced a sad little fit of crying. 
Through all she seemed conscious of the presence of 
Jesus, and after periods of silence, which nothing could 
break, would say, ' I couldn't answer you before ; I 
was pra}'ing.' She chose a framed text, in letters of 
silver and gold, ' Looking unto Jesus,' bought from 
the Calcutta bazaar by her own people, which hung 
always near her. For her bonny brother and sister 
her bedside was ever a centre of happy interest. Three 
months ago Burria was rather better, and we hoped 
she might recover. But strength failed again, and 
slowly the life, so beautiful in its gentle patience, ebbed 
away. To the last she held firmly a little Bengali 
book, called Jesus is Coming, and to words of prayer 
she always responded ' Amen,' when she noticed 
nothing else. On the Sunday of her death she seemed 
better, and twice laughed. Her mother could scarcely 
believe the child was d\-ing, and thought there must 
be new cause for hope. When we called a few days 
later, instead of the dismal wailing often heard even 
among Christians, the quiet, patient grief was very 
touching. \\'hen the mother's shy silence was at 
length overcome it seemed a comfort to speak of the 
child's life and influence, and in a beautiful Bengali 
phrase she said, ' Whence she belonged, tliither she 
has gone. She asked of God, and God gave what she 
asked. Now I know He can give peace and 
power. How often, when she would acknowledge 
no pain, I thought she dreaded medicine, but now I 



t2i BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

know it was God Who gave her such peace and 
patience.' " 

Equally as bright a testimony to God's grace was 
borne not long ago by a native Christian child in 
South India during a serious illness from which, 
happily, she recovered. One evening, after a weary 
day ot suffering, she said, " Jesus has been telling me 
many times to-day secret things. He did not tell me 
them when I was well. Does He always tell sick 
people His beautiful secrets ? " When she came out 
of her first attack she said, " The Devil has been here ! 
He said three things to me. i. ' You are going to 
die, and then your parents will come and revile your 
Missie Ummal (the Missionary) ! Oh, they will say 
such fearful things to her ! ' But Jesus came and said, 
' Be not afraid ; I will take care of her.' 2. ' You are 
going to die, and you will never see your own mother 
again. Never ! never ! never ! ' But Jesus came and 
said, ' Look unto Me and do not be frightened.' Then 
I opened my eyes and sang, ' Look up to Jesus ! 
Jesus will help you.' 3. 'God has deserted you! 
Yes, He has left you. He is not here with you now ! ' 
And he called me ' Forsaken.' But Jesus came and said, 
' I will never leave you nor forsake you ! Fear thou not, 
for I am with thee ! ' Then Satan ran away." 

Few of our readers perhaps realize 
the number of silent children in the 
great Indian Empire to whom the 
blessing of speech* and hearing has 
been denied. India contains no fewer 
than 200,000 Deaf and Dumb. Miss 
Florence Swainson, of Palamcottah, 
was one of the first to conceive the 
idea of receiving little Indian deaf 
mutes, whose mental powers were 
capable of being developed, and of 
teaching and training them by means of sign language. 
Her efforts have been successful and blessed beyond 




1^4 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

even her own anticipation. During her furlough 
in England in igoo, she collected sufficient funds 
to build a school, and on returning to India was 
set free from much of her ordinary missionary work 
that she might devote herself more entirely to the 
children whom she calls her " Dumbies." Writing 
home in August igoi to the kind friends who helped to 
raise the building fund, Miss Swainson spoke of her 
"dream fulfilled" in the beautiful new school with 
its large playground across which blows the fresh, 
mountain air from the Western Ghau-ts. There are 
two large dormitories, a schoolroom, an open dining 
room, the infants' classroom, and a little sick room 
with tiny dispensary off it. 

In the whole country of India there are but two 
other schools for Deaf and Dumb, and this is the only 
one where destitute children can be received and 
educated. About seventy "dumbies" have already 
been placed under her care, among whom are some 
who have come from places as far remote as Lahore, 
Agra, Delhi, Calcutta, and Poona. 

" We have adapted the English finger language to 
Tamil," says Miss Swainson, " substituting letters 
which are not in one language for extra ones in the 
other, and making a few of our own. 

" We did not attempt lip reading, but by spelling 
on our fingers and making a code of signs we have got 
on most happily. Our children learn nearly everything 
the other classes do, and go in for the same Govern- 
ment examinations. The chief difference is in our 
reading lessons, for which we have prepared our own 
books. After the alphabet is mastered, by writing with 
their fingers on the hand, then on their slates, also 
signing on their fingers, we teach about three hundred 
nouns from pictures, which they must both spell and 
sign ; then pronouns, and twenty \'erbs in the past, 
present, and future tenses. 

" Short sentences are next formed from what they 



WOUNDED LAMBS 125 

have already learned, and a few new words are daily 
added ; these sentences go on increasing in difficulty, 
until we hope the children will in time be able to read 
any ordinary book."* 

The children, besides learning their ordinary lessons, 
are taught to earn their living ; the girls by cooking 
and needlework, the boys by tailoring and carpentry. 
The patient, loving teaching given by the Indian 
teachers, who have been trained for this work, is not 
in vain; even the dullest mind brightens and in time 
grasps something, whilst the ordinary children's intel- 
lects so open that they are little behind other school 
children in their studies. 

"This year" (1901), writes Miss Swainson, " we 
are beginning to train and employ as monitresses three 
of our deaf girls who passed the fourth standard a year 
ago, and they are delighted with their promotion." 

Every day a Bible lesson is given, and on Sunda}^ 
Miss Swainson and the headmistress hold a little 
service for the children, as it would be useless to take 
them to church where they could neither hear nor 
understand. The Confession, Lord's Prayer, Creed, Ten 
Commandments, and Thanksgiving, are written on 
large sheets and each of these is gone through in signs ; 
after which an illustrated lesson is given on some Bible 
subject. 

A picture Bible has been prepared by this devoted 
worker for her " Dumbies," in five parts, illustrating, 
by sets of pictures, almost every story from Genesis to 
Revelation, and the elder girls have now advanced 
from understanding their meaning by signs, to reading 
the stories connected with them. 

Several times, when itinerating in the villages. Miss 
Swainson has taken one or two of her little mute pupils 
with her, who have acted as preachers to a crowd of 
wondering men and women, as they have quickly 
drawn texts upon the sand or explained by signs the 
*From EpJiphatlia, by Florence Swainson, C.E.Z.M.S. 



126 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

meaning of the Wordless Book ; Black — bad (repre- 
sented by little finger up) ; White — clean (represented 
by washing hands) ; Gold, i.e., something to do with 
heaven and crowns (represented by pointing up to the 
sky and by making a circle round the head) ; Red — 
redemption (represented by the sign of the Cross and 
by writing the name Jesus.) 

That, not only physical, but spiritual, blessing is 
being richly granted in this unique work may be 
gathered from the following stories from Miss Swain- 
son's pen in igoi : — • 

"A little Hindu boy who goes home from Saturday 
till Monday came a few Sundays ago for service at 7.30 
a.m. I asked him if he had eaten before coming. 
' No,' was the reply. I said, ' I am very sorry there is 
no rice for you here-' The little lad signed, 'Never 
mind, I can eat at noon, I must learn about Jesus,' and 
so he stayed without food till he had learned. 

" Another little Hindu child was showing the 
picture Bible and telling one story after another so 
eagerl}' and excitedly that a friend, watching, said to 
me, ' Surely he will never \\-orship idols again now 
that he knows so much.' I asked him, and he signed 
very decidedly, ' Certainly not " ; then he added, ' But 
my father worships them because he knows no better ; 
no one has taught him.' 

" We have lately lost one of our brightest, happiest 
children, who had been with us about four years and 
was just going in for her fourth standard. She had 
always been a delicate child and went off gradually 
into consumption. About a month before she died, 
when I saw she would not be here long, I sent her 
home to her mother. The IMblc-woman ot the village 
wrote to me very sweetly about her; she said that as 
the dear little body got weaker, so that she could only 
drag herself about with difficulty, her little face became 
brighter and happier, until Christians and Heathen 
alike remarked on it, and wondered she should be so 



WOUNDED LAMBS 127 

happy when she knew she was dying. Peace was 
written on the dear child's face, God's peace was in 
her heart, and she was quite ready to go, 

" Only the Sunday before she left, our lesson was 
upon Heaven ; I noticed her bright, eager face, and I 
am sure she was eagerly looking forward to that beau- 
tiful Home, for she knew the way there. Thank God 
for another dear little one gathered safely in, no longer 
deaf and dumb ! 

" Seven children have been baptized this year, six 
as infants with more or less knowledge, and one elder 
girl of sixteen, who has been with us some years, and 
quite understood what she was doing. She long wished 
to come out as a Christian, but her people, all Heathen, 
were very much opposed, and tried to marry her to a 
heathen man, but the girl was firm and refused to have 
anything to do with Heathenism. At last her people 
gave way and consented to her baptism. Our Tamil 
clergyman who came to examine her, was very much 
surprised by her clear, straight answers, and it was 
most touching in church to see him wait after each 
question while she very clearly signed heranswers, and 
showed she quite understood. She was baptized 
Kirubeipettah (Received Grace). The girl is very 
decidedly changed, and we believe a work of grace is 
going on in her heart, and also in the hearts of others." 

For patient continuance in such an arduous task, 
no wonder that our workers claim our prayers ! 

A peculiarly interesting feature of this work is the 
fact that the funds for supporting it are largely raised 
by a Silent Service Guild, founded by Miss Swainson, 
whose members subscribe sixpence yearly as a thank 
offering for the blessing of speech and hearing.* 
Numbers of deaf mutes in British Institutions have 

'■'■'■ Each Associate of the vS.S.G. is asked to find twelve 
members willing to subscribe sixpence a year. These sixpences 
go to help the work in India : the Associate's own sixpence goes 
towards the Pension Fund of the Aged Deaf and Dumb in this 
country. 



128 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



joined the Guild and are following this growing work 
wdth prayer and keen interest. 

Yet another class of little sufferers claims our 
sympathy, and is ministered to by our Missionaries 
who seek the wounded lambs. The Famine orphans 
plea for shelter and adoption is one to which few 
could turn a deaf ear. 

The principal centre of interest in these children 
by the C.E.Z.ALS. lies at Katni Morwara near 
Jabalpur, where some 150 girls at a time are received 




Famine Sufferers awaiting Relief outside tlie Compound, Jabalpur, 
Central Provinces, 

into a happy, homelike Orphanage. The beginning 
of Faminee rescue was in 1897, that terrible year 01 
drought in the Central Provinces which made 
Jabalpur a painfully familiar word in the English 
newspapers, and which brought such a strain on the 
faith and courage of the Missionaries. 

At first, the famine women and children left upon 
the hands of the workers had to be temporarily 
sheltered in sheds, fed, and nurfied, until they were 



WOUNDED LAMBS 129 

strong enough to be moved to other Homes and 
Orphanages. But, in i8g8, by Miss Branch's inde- 
fatigable efforts, a building was erected for them, 
where they are now being trained as teachers, semp- 
stresses and ayahs, and not a few promise to becomes 
Missionaries to their own countrywomen in days 
to come. 

At St. Catherine's, Amritsar, at this time, famine 
orphans were also received as at many another C.E.Z. 
station. Of these arrivals in the Hospital Miss 
Hewlett wrote as follows : — 

" They were wasted to mere skeletons, and they 
had no strength even to sit. The state of misery in 
which they came to us can only be described by the 
word awful. It made one shudder to see those 
children and realize that they were human beings. 
For many days they lay motionless like little corpses 
under the bed clothes, which were never ruffled. No 
one heard their voices except when there was any 
sound of food, and then there would be a piteous 
moan of ' We are hungry ! ' coming from throats 
which seemed to ha\e no power to bring out the 
words. Two of them were blind and one partially so. 

" Now, onl}' three months later those children are 
fat and merry, the ward resounds with their chattering 
and laughter, and the}^ are to pass on to school life. 
That they are fast recovering health and spirits may 
be known from the fact of their shouting ' Samuel, 
Samuel ! ' from the upstairs ward through the 
windows, after my Bible lesson on Sunday, to shew 
hov/ they thought the call of Samuel must have 
sounded ! " 

In igoo, Miss Hewlett wrote " All of God's 
ser\ants who during that famine heard the voice of 
God, saying, ' Take these children and nurse them for 
Me,' are already reaping great joy in the happy and 
promising lives of these little ones. It is impossible now 
to judge from their appearance which were originally 

K 



I30 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

famine children, and which were not. But the most 
happy news about the faminees is that they are 
simply believing and are growing up as little 
Christians. Several boys and girls are going to be 
confirmed shortly." 

But to return to the Morwara Orphanage, or, rather, 
to the days preceding its building. A Government 
official, who saw Miss Branch's large band of rescued 
little girls at this time, remarked that they were the 
" happiest, nicest set of native girls " whom he had 
seen anywhere in the Provinces. Miss Branch, in 
telling of one batch of children found by the C.M.S. 
Missionar}' in a sad plight en the road, speaks of one 
of the girls whom at first she felt inclined to refuse on 
account of her hardened expression. 

" But I happened to catch a look in her face, and 
I could not turn her away. The look was one of 
eager passivity, so eager, but mixed with it was ' If 
she does not take me it is my fate.' That look melted 
me, and I said, ' You shall go too.' Ijefore the words 
were fairly out of my mouth the child burst out 
sobbing, and then I gave her a comforting touch, and 
found that she was burning. I said, ' Poor child, you 
have fever.' She sobbed, ' Yes, but it is only starva- 
tion fever, please do not be afraid to take me.' " 

Very soon after the orphans were removed to their 
new Home at Katni Morwara, as many as twenty- 
one famine women and children were baptised one 
"red-letter" Sunda}-. As the Church was \-ery small, 
the service .was held in the schoolroom of the 
Orphange. The children repeated the responses very 
clearly, knowing them by heart, and entered into the 
service most eagerly and re\-erently — " in a way that 
would put many a Christian congregation to shame," 
wrote their Missionary-in-Charge. 

That the holy rite was an "outward and visible 
sign of an inward and spiritual grace '" was proved by 
the truly earnest Christian character which many of 



WOUXDED LAMBS 131 

the Morwara girls have developed. A very firm faith 
in prayer has been a marked characteristic of these 
rescued little ones. 

One morning when Miss Branch visited the Home, 
she noticed two of the children who flocked round her 
as having an appealing, expectant look on their faces. 
Presently one of them pulled her sleeve and whispered, 
" Am I supported }et ? Have I a ' mother ' ? " Miss 
Branch replied, " A lady will take one of }Ou for a 
year " — for that \ery morning she had received a 
letter to this effect, but I must speak to Miss Daeuble 
(the Missionary-in-charge) before deciding which 
child it shall be." Afterwards it transpired that a few 
da}-s before Miss Branch's visit, the matron had heard 
talking in the night, and, thinking the children were 
disobedient, went to their dormitory to correct 
them. But when she reached the door she stood still, 
for these two girls were kneeling together pra}-ing, 
and she overheard their prayer. " O God, have You 
forgotten us ? No one has taken us. Do let someone 
support us soon.'' Miss Branch was privileged to 
take the answer for the one child, and when the kind 
supporter heard the story she promised to adopt the 
other. 

On November iSth, 1900, the first live candidates 
from the Home were confirmed. 

" During the morning before the Confirmation,"' 
says Miss Bardsley, who ^\•as then assisting Miss 
Dgeuble, "I had a quiet time of prayer and reading 
with them, and it was touching to hear their earnest 
prayers that God would indeed bless them and make 
them blessings. As I saw them going up to the 
Bishop, dressed in their simple white saiis, so 
reverently, I did feel that God had done great things 
for them." 

Though we have been occupied with the sufferings 
of Indian childhood, we would remind our readers that 
('hinese children are not exempt from sickness brought 



T32 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

about by the same ignorance and superstition ; nor 
from the effect of remedies often far worse than the 
disease. All Chinese applications are not so harmless 
as that for " pig's-head skin " — (the Chinese equi- 
valent for mumps.) In order to drive away the pig's- 
head, there is, they think, no better remedy than 
to let a tiger loose upon it. But as this is not quite an 
eas}' matter, the cunning Chinaman reckons that the 
written character for " tiger " is equally effectual, and 
so patients present themselves at the Mission Dispen- 
sary with Tiger painted in red on both cheeks ! The 
children of the well-to-do frequently wear a silver 
chain round the neck with a lock attached. This is 
supposed to lock them to life and to ward off all evil 
influences. Sometimes a miniature donkey's collar is 
put on the child's neck as soon as it is born, to make 
the spirits believe that the wearer is an animal and not 
a human being, and this collar is not removed until the 
boy reaches the age of twelve, when he is supposed to 
have passed safely the period during which he was 
most likely to succumb to childish complaints. 

I3ut happy is the child who escapes treatment by 
the Chinese doctor ! A Missionar}- of the China 
Inland Mission tells of a little bo_v who had a harmless 
eruption on his body, and for whom his parents 
secured the services of the best native doctor. For 
about two months that man tortured the poor child by 
applying the lighted wick of a lamp lo each spot on 
his bod}', till his screams roused the neighbourhood. 
At last he was brought to the Mission and cured 
in a few days. 

For another child (in the Full Ning Prefecture) who 
was suffering from acute pneumonia, the native 
practitioner prescribed tea made from a fe\\' wizened 
prunes, pieces of bamboo tree, and grains of wheat, 
and assured the mother that the complaint was 
unimportant. 

In itinerating medical work now and again, cases 



WOUNDED LAMBS 133 

of great cruelty to children are discovered, the result 
and effect, be it ever remembered, of heathenism. 

Dr. Colborne relates the pathetic story of a small 
child whom he was treating for curvature of the spine 
and paral}-sis of the legs, who had been given away by 
her mother as useless, to an old boat-woman, who 
thought she would patch her up sufficiently to crawl 
about on her hands and feet in the boat to wait on her, 
cook her rice, look after the hre, wash her clothes, 
light the incense-sticks night and morning, dec. All 
the spirit seemed to have been knocked out of the 
child by ill-usage, and almost the only time a smile 
came into the little wizened face was when she heard 
about " the Friend for little children above the bright 
blue sky," and the Home we thought she would soon 
be going to. Then she looked happy, as she did 
another time when she was lying asleep at the bottom 
of the little boat, an old Christmas card with a bright 
robin on it held in her hand. 

"For some time we missed the boat 

However, one morning we caught sight of her and the 
child in the boat, the latter a piteous sight. Her lips 
seemed to be all swollen and covered with blistering 
sores, and also her hands. The other boat-women 
around told us that the old woman had been engaged 
in ' hellish work.' She had been burning the child's 
lips and hands with incense-sticks as a punishment for 
some act of misbehaviour." 

Elsewhere we have alluded to the terrible e\ils of 
footbinding, but as the awful practice obtains with 
Chinese girls, it is fitting that we should depict it fully 
in reciting the woes of ' wounded lambs.' 

'■ It would require a medical work to describe the 
various m.aladies more or less directly traceable to 
binding," sa}"s the author oi Intimate China. A bound- 
footed Chinese woman \salks entirel}' on her heel, and 
the consequent jar to the spine and the whole body 
which this mvoKes is the cause of internal maladies 



134 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

almost universal among the women and girls of those 
regions where binding is practised. 

The Chinese proverb is " For each pair of bound 
feet there has been a whole kang (tub) full of tears " ; 
and it has been said, by unimpeachable authority, that 
one girl in ten dies of footbinding, or its after-effects. 
As we have already observed, the Chinese know 
nothing of physiolog}- or anatomy, and this ignorance 
causes untold suffering to the women and children 
of their land. Chinese women are disinclined to con- 
fess pain in the feet. To do so is considered Z)?^ /mo 
i-tsii — indelicate. Yet, \\hen questioned closely, not 
one woman in a hundred will deny that she is a 
constant sufferer, owing to the tight bandages. 

From several authorities we have gleaned par- 
ticulars showing the method of this barbarous opera- 
tion ; although it must be observed that the process of 
binding, the style of shoe worn, and the social 
condition of the \"ictim, vary considerably in different 
parts of the empire. In the last medical report of the 
Chinese Maritime Customs, reference is made by the 
Medical Officer at Chung King to "the injuries fre- 
quently arising from the practice of compressing the 
girls' feet." The women of the Szechuan Province 
bind the feet more tighth' than in other districts of the 
Yangtse Valley. In the South-west, a three-inch sole 
is usual, even among poor families. Those who work 
in the fields have very small feet, and kneel at their 
work. The rich bind the feet of their daughters at six 
or seven \ears, the poor at thirteen or fourteen. 

The appliances for binding include no iron or 
wooden shoe ; only long strips of firm, flexible calico 
are used. These bandages for mis-shaping the feet are 
wo\en in small hand looms, and are about two inches 
wide and ten feet long. The process is begun by turn- 
ing all the toes, except the large one, under the soles of 
the feet. One end of the bandage is laid on the inside 
of the instep; thence it is carried o\er the four toes, 



WOUNDED LAMBS [35 

drawing them down upon the sole ; then it passes under 
the foot, over the instep and around the heel, drawing 
the heel and toe nearer together, making a bulge on 
the instep and a deep niche in the sole underneath ; 
thence it follows its former course until the bandage is 
all applied, and the last end is sewn down firmly on the 
underlying cloth. 

In the earl}- stages, the children suffer excruciating 
agony. Morning and night of each succeeding day the 
bandages are tightened and the toes are driven still 
further from their natural position, and, in spite of the 
fiercest protest from Nature, are pressed so far under 
the soles that the instep bones often crack and break, 
unable to bear the strain ; or, if the bones are re- 
fractory and spring back into their places on the 
removal of the bandage, sometimes a blow is given 
with the heavy wooden mallet used in beating clothes. 

Directly after binding, the child is made to walk up 
and down on her poor, aching feet, lest mortification 
should at once set in. Once a month, or oftener, the 
feet, with the bandages upon them, are soaked in a 
bucket of hot water. Then the bandages are removed, 
the dead skin is rubbed off, and the foot is again 
kneaded more fully into the desired shape. Pulverized 
alum is applied, and clean bandages are quickly 
afiixed. If the binding is not speedily effected, the 
blood again circulates in the feet, and the process 
of re-binding is exquisitely painful. 

All this is during the first }-ear ; but the next 
two years prove the most terrible time for the little 
Chinese lady, for then the foot is no longer being 
narrowed, but shortened, by so winding the bandages 
as to draw the fleshy part of the foot and the heel close 
together, untill only a space wide enough to hide a 
half-crown piece edgewise exists between them. This 
space does not touch the shoe, and is consequently soft 
and tender, and liable to ulceration, especiall\' if the 
little N'ictim inherits a strumous constitution. It not 



136 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

infrequently happens that the flesh becomes putrescent 
during the process of binding and portions slough 
away from the sole, toes drop off, and the foot gains 
elegance in proportion to the pain and mutilation ! 
When the foot is completely re-modelled, the shape is 
like a hen's head, and the big toe resembling the bill. 
There is little else than skin and bone below the knee ; 
and the foot cannot be stood upon without its band- 
ages, nor can it ever be restored to its natural shape. 

During these three years, the girlhood of China 
presents a most melancholy spectacle. There is no 




The Correct Size 



" hop, skip, and jump " for the Chinese girl ; no cheeks 
rosy with romps. She moves leaning heavily on a 
stick, or is carried on a man's back, or sits, sadly 
crying, the tears quietly rolling down her pallid cheeks, 
from eyes lined with black furrows, the tide-marks 
of pain and sleeplessness. At night she sleeps upon 
her back, lying crosswise on the bed, with her feet 
dangling over the side of the wooden bedstead, so that 
the edge may press on the nerves behind the knee 



WOUNDED LAMBS 137 

in such a way as to stop circulation and dull the pain. 
Even in the coldest weather she cannot wrap herself 
entirely in a coverlet, because every return of warmth 
to her limbs increases the aching. What wonder is it 
that through the long night she moans ? Yet custom 
has so expunged all the finer and more generous 
feeling from the heart of the mother that she will keep 
a stick beside her own bed with which to beat the child 
should her wails disturb the household ; or, probably, 
the little sufferer will be turned into an outhouse 
for the night. 

Yet the Chinese girl is scarcely less anxious than 
her mother to exhibit the sign of good birth and breed- 
ing by her " lil)-feet." She is taught that it would be 
disgraceful to grow up with large feet like the field- 
women, and, though she sits cocking herself to and fro, 
holding her maimed foot in her hand to still the 
anguish, she would be as reluctant as her elders to fore- 
go the custom, which is to be a source of life-long pride 
— and misery — to her. The heroic fortitude of the 
women and girls who endure such torture for the sake 
of propriety is amazing. 

The torture does not end N\hen, after three years, 
the foot is practically insensible and dead. When her 
feet are small enough to be encased within two and a 
half-inch shoes, the unfortunate owner can only stand 
in an inclined position, with the heel considerably 
elevated above the toe. She would really throw the 
whole weight of her bod}' on her two large toes (the 
only ones left !) ; but in order to ease the strain 
upon them, a ball of cloth is fixed in the after part 
of the shoe, upon which the heel may rest, and thus 
avoid fatal consequences of cramping the big toe. 

No Chinese lad\- ever willingly exhibits her bare 
feet to even her bound-footed acquaintances, so grue- 
some a spectacle must it e\er be. But the mummy 
cases — her shoes — are her pride. Embroidered silk 
'■ uppers,'" hand-painted heels, elaborately worked ends 



138 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

to the black silk scarf which covers the white bandage, 
such are the gorgeous sepulchres of the poor dead feet, 
which appear to be only the petals of a field lily as they 
are seen reposing on a cushion when the Cripple of 
Custom receives her guests. 

It is not surprising that a large percentage of 
women and girls who seek the foreign lady doctor 
bring foot troubles to her for cure. Ulceration extend- 
ing from the heel half-way up to the knee is by no 
means uncommon. A poor little girl, when only 
between six and seven years of age, was brought to a 
Mission Hospital at Nanking, both her feet being 
already black masses of corruption. After eighteen 
months of suffering she died. Such incidents could be 
multiplied. 

Infanticide is again and again excused by the 
Chinese mother on these lines : — " Oh, how was I to 
go through the disgust and pain of binding her feet ? Is 
it not much better as it is ? Now she, at least, is free 
from suffering." 

Twice, during the past century, severe punishment 
was threatened by a Chinese emperor for binding feet. 
It is evident that the Manchu dynasty has never 
varied in its opposition to the practice of footbinding. 

But, in this connection, we thankfully record the 
progress of a remarkable, anti-footbinding movement, 
which, founded onl\' in 1S95, is rapidly spreading 
throughout the seaboard pro\inces of the great 
Empire, and is even penetrating inland. The Society 
called the Pu Tsuii Tsii Hui (Natural Feet Society), 
formed by Missionaries, European residents, and 
Chinese, devotes its funds to the circulation of literature 
relative to footbinding, to the giving of prizes foressa\s 
upon the same, and to every effort to do away \\\\.h. 
this injurious custom. Its labours ha\e been signally 
blessed. 

From Shantung, Kung Hui Chung, the lineal 
descendant of Confucius, has written a letter saying 



]yOUXDEI) LAMBS 139 

that his heart has long burnt within him, but he 
has not dared to say anything against footbinding till 
now, when he finds " wise daughters from foreign 
lands," and virtuous men, are issuing writings de- 
nouncing the custom. He is now himself collecting 
their tracts and circulating what he thinks the best bits 
put together out of them. East and west, in Shan- 
tung, Hunan, Canton, Shanghai, and even in far away 
Szchuan, there is agitation, and several leagues against 
footbinding have been formed. Influential citizens 
of Szechuan have placarded the walls of Sui-fu, pledg- 
ing themselves to one another not to bind their 
daughters' feet, to seek unbound brides for their sons, 
and in all ways to discourage binding in their own 
homes. Last year an anti-footbinding society was 
started in Kwang-tung. Almost at once it numbered 
thousands of adherents. The I'u Tsan Tsu Hui, at its 
headquarters in Shanghai, has opened a register for 
those who join, in which any Chinaman wishing to fi::d 
a bride with unbound feet for his son can see exactly 
among what families he is likely to find her. A senti- 
ment against footbinding is beginning to be created in 
the minds of the men students under Christian 
influence, and it is a significant lact that, here and 
there, young brides are unbinding their feet at the 
request of their husbands ; while one of the signs of the 
times is apparent in a statement made recently by the 
daughter of an official. Her father, she sa\'s, is con- 
nected with a purely native anti-footbinding society, 
composed of more than 10.000 members from official 
families. 

Thank God that such a movement is taking hold of 
the people. However purel}- native and philanthropic 
each fresh agitation against the awful curse may be, do 
we not recognize in it the permeating ]ea\en of the 
Gospel in answer to tlie j)ra\"ers that, for }'ears, have 
ascended on behalf of China's wounded lambs ? 

A spirited appeal to Chinese fathers issued b}* the 



t4o BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATFi 

" Natural Feet Society," from the pen of its inde- 
fatigable Organising Secretary, Mrs. Archibald Little 
(wife of an English merchant at Chung King), closes 
thus : — 

" There is an English poem that begins ' Do you 
hear the children weeping, oh ! my brothers ? ' We 
are all brothers and sisters under Heaven. I say to 
the men of China, do you hear the children weeping, 
oh ! ye fathers ? You are each a master in your own 
home. Stop this great misery that the girls of China 
may grow up strong and brave, able to bear strong 
sons, and to train them to be brave and vigorous, so 
that your nation may be great as in the days when 
Mencius was trained by his uncrippled mother. You 
will never be a brave people whilst cruel to little 
children. Do you not hear the children weeping all 
around you ? Be brave, be pitiful ! Save the little 
girls whose soft wee feet are not yet broken." 

It is needless to say that ever}' Christian missionar}' 
of every denomination uses his or her intiuence against 
this pernicious custom which tor centuries has held 
undisputed sway over the women of China. And in 
the Station Classes and Schools of our Society in 
Fuh Kien, the unbinding of feet after conversion is an 
occurrence which often takes place with ver\' little 
exhortation on the part of the Missionary ; the sin of 
mutilating the God-given limbs is so clearly recognized 
by the one who has wholly yielded herself to Christ. 

A remarkable instance in this connection occurred 
not long ago in the Kien Ning district. A catcchist 
was appointed to a certain place, but when the people 
heard that his wife was bound-footed, the Christians 
forbade him to reside in their midst, and insisted that 
he should stay in a neighbouring village until his wife 
had unbound her feet and could walk properl}', when 
they would be ready to welcome both. 

We, in England, can scarcely realize how great a 
test of moral courage, fortitude, and patience it is to 



]VOUXDED LAMBS 141 

the Chinese woman to appear in pubhc as the 
possessor of natural feet. It is hard to understand 
the tenacious hold which such a wholly evil custom 
obtains on the Chinese mind. But, in proportion, it 
is an exhibition of very deep and genuine grace in the 
heart which leads the Christian convert spontaneously 
to incur the temporary pain and permanent scorn 
involved by discontinuing the practice. 

It is a joy to our Missionaries to see the freedom 
of the little rescued foundlings in the Bird's Nest at 
Kucheng, and to know that they will grew up un- 
mutilated and uncrippled. The children themselves 
appreciate the deli\erance which Christianity has 
brought for them. "Our feet belong to Jesus, and 
not to the Devil," was the remark of one tiny child, 
as she chatted with a little bound-footed girl visitor. 
In Behind the Great ]Vall we have told the story of 
the founding of the " Bird's Nest," which now shelters 
about forty waifs, all of whom were unwanted girls 
thrown out by their parents to die. A few months 
ago two wee ones sitting on the stairs were over- 
heard talking " Do you thmk Jesus loves us all ? I 
know He loves some of us." " Yes," said the other, 
" I think He loves us all, or He would not have taken 
us out of the water." 

Yes. It is because Jesus the Good Shepherd loves 
all the wounded lambs, that through His servants He 
is seeking and healing them to-day. What more 
blessed, Christ-like errand can there be ? ^^'hy is it 
that so few heed the cry of the children in these far-off 
lands or hasten to dry their tears ? 

'• (^h for a passionate passion for souls I 
Oh for a pity that yearns 1 " 





^^^^^r^^^^^BflHllM. v^^^l 





s ? 
^ - 



CHAPTER VI 

CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY. 

or 

Hospitals and Dispensaries in North 
India ajid Bengal 

"The spirit of Missions is the spirit of sympathy, of self 
denial and of service, which is only another way of saying that it 
is the spirit of Christ."-^. C. Sinit/i, D.D. 

" I believe, notwithstanding all that the English people have 
done to benefit India, the missionaries have done more than all 
other agencies combined." — Lord Lawrence. 

IT is our purpose in the following chapters to depict 
as far as may be the principal homes of healing 
founded by the C.E.Z.M.S. While the details 
differ, and the pictures are of varying light and 
shade, the one aim is prominent through all : to bring sin- 
sick souls in contact \^'ith Christ, the Great Physician, 
Medical Mission work is attempted in nearly every 
station in the foreign field occupied by this Society : 
but it ma\' not be generally known how great a work 
on these lines has sprung up of recent years and how 
increasingly the Society individually and collectively 
recognizes that Medical Missionary work in its trtie 
form, viz., as carried on by fully equipped physicians, 
is becoming an absolutely necessary adjunct to, or 
rather integral part of, each Mission Station. 

The Society to-day (1901) has no fewer than 

14? 



144 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

fifteen hospitals, situated in Amritsar, Krishnagar, 
Ratnapur, Baharwal-Atari, Batala, Ajnala, Jandiala, 
Narowal, Tarn-Taran, Peshawar, Quetta, Bangalore, 
Trevandrum, Foochow and Lo-Nguong ; each with its 
accompanying out-patient department ; and Dispen- 
saries also (without Hospitals) in Calcutta, jMankar, 
Dera Ismail Khan, H3'derabad, Sukkur, Srinagar, 
Khammamett, Gampola, Dang Seng, and Kucheng; also 
the cire of a ward in the Native Hospital, Foochow. 

Eight of these stations are in the charge of 
European fully-qualified lady doctors. Six are in the 
care of ladies who have had a two years' medical 
course of training in England. Four are placed under 
those who have had from two to four years' training at 
St. Catherine's, Amritsar, and the remaining workers 
in charge have had shorter periods of medical study. 

We are well aware that only such Medical Missions 
as are worked by fully-qualified members of the 
medical profession are strictly entitled to be thus 
called. Yet for obvious reasons we venture to 
include a description of work which, in however small 
a measure, combines healing with preaching the 
Gospel under our sketches of Medical Mission agency. 

It was in answer to many prayers that a fully- 
qualified lady doctor offered her generous help for the 
women of the Mahommedan Mission, Calcutta. Mrs. 
Mills, L.R.C.P. cS: S., Ed., had only just arrived from 
England (1900), and, owing to her marriage, was no 
longer practising. The over-pressed workers, longing 
for a fellow-helper with the skill so much needed, 
welcomed her aid with intense thankfulness. 

Funds came in to keep open the tiny dispensary 
opened by Mis Bardsley, and to support a trained 
assistant from St. Catherine's, Amritsar, for a year. 
At first the girls' schoolroom was used in lieu of a 
better place ; then the missionaries' own abode was 
invaded, and a small mud room belonging to the 
mission house was rented. But after several weeks, 



CLIXICAL CHRIST I AX ITY 145 

tindino; themselves packed into it with eighty patients 
and a temperature over 100'^', they were obliged to 
hire a second room, and now (iQoi) a third small 
mud hut is to be rented. 

The Dispensar}' is open two da}-s a week, and is 
besieged with grateful patients, as many as fifty attend- 
ing in one da\-. More would come if they could, but 
the majority are so poor that to hire a duli is almost an 
impossibilit}'. Their bigotry melts away into grati- 
tude to their benefactors, and attention to the Message 
which the J3ible-woman faithfully proclaims. The 
busy mother is away from the distractions of her 
Zenana, and her heart softens and gives heed to the 
things spoken. 

It is hoped shortly to start a second small Dispen- 
sary at another Mahommedan centre — Tall}-gunge. 
But again, here, the cry of the workers is for a fully- 
qualitied doctor and Zenana Hospital, which ought to 
be in every Mission centre. 

The life of a missionary in the midst of heathen 
villages is an illustration of the days when the Good 
Physician wa3 thronged by suffering multitudes until 
there was " no leisure so much as to eat." Out in the 
vast Nuddea district of Bengal numbers of sick ha\e 
had to be sent away in the days before a Mission 
Dispensary was established and a doctor was sent out. 
Yet the elementar\- knowledge possessed by the Mission- 
ary-in-Charge, Miss Dawe, made her famous, although 
she refused to undertake any serious case, and sick 
people travelled three days' journe\"s to place them- 
selves under her care. A large proportion of the 
patients were suffering from skin diseases and ordinar}- 
fevers, and the chief remedies for these were cleanliness, 
care, and common sense, cures all easily procurable 
indeed, yet needing to be instilled into the Bengali 
women's mind. It is marvellous to see how the_\- will 
carefully bind up a wound with the tilthiest of rags ; 
and where burning fe\cr is consuming the strength of 

L 



146 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

a loved child, the mother believes she is doing wisely 
by withholding every kind of nourishment. 

Thus a medical branch of the Village Mission grew 
up of itself, without intention on the part of those who 
began the work — Miss Dawe and her one helper, the 
faithful Bible-woman, Rachel. 

" My first peep at the work, in 1891," says Miss F. 
C. Brown, "was to find Miss Dawe sitting on the 
verandah of a mud house in which she had been hold- 
ing a meeting, surrounded by an eager group of women, 
each with a bottle or vessel of some sort, while medi- 
cinal directions were being carefully given. The medi- 
cine were carried about by the Missionar}- in a rough 
wooden box made by a village carpenter easily convey- 
able by tuni-tuni. In 1892, a friend in England sent out 
as her representative a \\orker whom a short Hospital 
training in England rendered able and eager to help in 
the medical work, and soon after Miss Owles had 
joined the Mission, a small Dispensary was opened in a 
go-down that had been fitted up with shelves and a 
supply of medicines. At once the number of women 
and children out-patients doubled, even though a fee 
of two pice was charged, so as to ensure that only those 
needing medicine themseh'es would apply. 

So many wounds and sores were healed, so many 
fevers cured, that the Miss Sahihiis fame spread all over 
the district and the numbers grew. The headquarters 
were now removed from Bollobhpur to Ratnapur, and 
Miss Trench joined the staff, having studied medicine 
and Indian diseases at St. Catherine's Hospital, Amrit- 
sar. A mud house was dignified b}- the name of tem- 
porar}- Hospital, though in reality it was only a shelter 
in which a patient might stay a few days, their relati\es 
making all arrangements for cooking, c\:c. 

The extent of the work b}- this time is seen from 
the fact that in one }'car, 58,000 out-patients, coming 
from goo different \'illages, were treated ; while the 
immensely wide seed-scattering which took place \\'ill 



CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 147 

be realized when it is known that each patient received 
a very simple Gospel tract, printed in Bengali on the 
back of her prescription. This paper containing 
particulars of treatment, &c., was to be carefully pro- 
duced on each visit to the Dispensary. A translation 
of the tract runs as follows : — 

" Why have you come to the Dispensary ? Is it not 
because nou are sick and wish to get well ? You 
believe that if the Doctor Miss 5a/n'6a gives you medicine 
3'ou are sure to get well. How she will hial you, you 
do not know, but you believe she wishes to, and will 
do all in her power for it. The Doctor Miss Sahiba can- 
not heal all the sick nor drive away every disease. She 
is not God, but only human, but she tries to make the 
sick ones well, and often does so, and her medicines 
act on the diseases. But besides this there is another 
kind of disease far worse than that of the body. We 
call it the disease of the soul. Whether rich or poor, 
whether )-oung or old, whether male or female, all have 
this disease. What is it, and who can heal it ? 

" This disease is sin ! There is no one who has not 
sinned. Are you without sin ? The Doctor Miss SaJiiba 
cannot heal this disease, but she knows who can. There 
is only One in the world who can heal this soul-disease. 
He is Jesus, the Son cf God. Jesus can put aicay all si)i 
and heal everyone ; for He is God. It is written in the 
Gospel, ' All power is gi\en unto Me in heaven and in 
earth.' 

"'Jesus wishes to heal everyone. He sa}'s, ' Come unto 
Me, all ye that are weary and hea\'}'-laden and I \\ill 
gi\-e you rest.' Also, ' God so l()\'ed.' &c. (St. Jno. iii. 16). 

"Jesus has promised to heal. He says, ' Him that 
Cometh to Me I will in no wise cast out.' Do }-ou wish 
to be healed from the disease of sin ? Do }ou wish for 
a new and clean heart ? Come to Jesus; He will heal 
}'ou. Great or small, all who luue come to Him ha\e 
been healed, every one. 

"At the Dispensary each morning something will be 



14S BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

told you about this. Listen attentively, and you will 
find out how you can come to Jesus and be healed." 

Funds for building a Hospital were sent in answer 
to prayer, and were placed in Miss Dawe's and Miss 
Trench's hands when on furlough in England, and the 
still more valuable acquisition, a fully qualified lady 
doctor, Miss V. Von Himpe, M.D., was provided who 
took over the entire charge of the medical work in 
June, 1897. Miss E. Owles, with true self-effacement, 
wrote thus of the event : " None gave a heartier wel- 
come to her rightful post than the ' quacks ' who now 
gladly hide their diminished heads for ever and a day." 

The new building was opened with much thanks- 
giving and prayer on New Year's Day, 1900, by the 
Rev. F. Paynter, whose munificent donation to the 
building fund had made its erection possible. 

All the C.M.S. pastors, teachers, Bible women, and 
Church members from the neighbouring Christian 
villages were invited to the opening ceremony, which 
took place under the fine, stately trees in the comoound. 
The Clergy, the Rev. E. T. Butler and the Rev. Koilash 
C. Day, conducted an impressivelittle service, Bengali- 
English forming equal parts in the proceedings. After 
the benediction had been pronounced. Dr. Von Himpe 
presented Mr, Paynter with the key of the Hospital, 
who, having unlocked the door, declared the building 
opened and stated the motive and object of its v\ork 
in a few appropriate sentences. 

The Hospital, in reality one large ward, has been 
fitted up wiih great completeness of appointments for 
the care of the sick. The Dispensary, a twin building, 
is in a prominent position quite close to the road. It 
consists of four rooms, for dispensing, consulting, 
dressing, and stores, and has a verandah to accommo- 
date the patients. 

During one }'car as man\' as twenty-se\en in- 
patients have been received, and ncarh' 9,000 have 
visited the Dispensary. 



CLIXICAL CHRIST I AX ITY 



149 



Dr. \^on Himpe has also opened a Dispensary 
made of mud and thatched with straw at Meherpur, 
a small town about eight miles from Ratnapur. The 
itineratinc^ doctor finds her bic}cle an invaluable 
steed in the cold, dr\- weather. She sa}'s : "The little 
cow-boys are delighted to see the Miss Sahiba coming. 
They shout at the top of their voices and try to keep 
up with her as long^as possible. Meeting a herd of 
cows is a funny experience. Buffaloes, too, take to 




The Dispensary at Meherpur, Nuddea, Bengal. 

their heels and flee for their li\-es from the uncanny 
machine, and it is most ridiculous to see those bulky 
creatures running."' 

The iinn-iitiii is, however, the more usual mode of 
conveyance, as it can hold a Bible woman and tiffin 
basket: but sometimes during the rain\- season, the 
ri\er is the onh' road left, and then se\'eral long hours 
must be spent in the Mission boat. 

Several bows in the town have invited the doctor to see 



15° 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



and prescribe for them and j^^ive, not only her, but her 
Message a warmly appreciative reception. Often their 
neighbours are in\ited and so quite a small congrega- 
tion is assembled. The work in this out-station is 
growing amazingly, and now (1901) the Missionar}^ phy- 
sician has an ever-increasing number of patients await- 
ing her at the Dispensary and many more eager requests 
to visit the higher caste women in their own homes. 

Kushtia, a small town in the N.E. of the Nuddea 
district, has recently become another permanent out- 
station and point of Medical Mission interest. A 
Dispensary was opened in 1899, and Mrs. Peters, a 
certificated nurse and Bible woman, has been success- 
full}- prosecuting very real Medical Mission work in the 
homes of the people. Miss C. P. Marks, who has been 
in charge of the Dispensary for a time, speaks of the 
gratitude of the women for relief. 

" Some fall down on the ground to touch our feet 
with their foreheads, sayinp, how good the medicine 
was and how much better the\- arc. Others bring as a 
thank-offering some minute fish in a particularh' dirt\' 
piece of cloth. Of couise the cloth is dirty. Who n'ould 
think of putting fish into a clean cloth ? Others again 
bring eggs and native fruit. Though we are generall}' 
glad to hand over these dainties to the 
I)ible-women, it is always a source of 
joy to know the feeling which prompted 
the gifts." 

Although not }-et entitled to the 
name of Medical Mission, simple 
remedies to the sufi'ering folk of 
Mankar, in the Burdwan district, 
ha\e been administered so freely and 
with such remarkable results by our 
Missioiiar\' in charge of the station as 
Miss C.Harding. ^^^y (^-^jj f,)f- ^(^.f-^. spccial mention. 

The work Nirtually began in 180N, when Miss C. 
Harding, on her itinerating tour in the cool ^^•eatherJ 




CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 151 

took with her a small stock of medicines, having 
previously found herself besieged for medical advice 
from those to whom an English lady and sinyana or 
wise woman are synon3'mous terms. 

In those villages visited before she had a warm wel- 
come, and now the news quickly spread, that 'the Mem 
who gives the medicine has come.' Forthwith the 
halt, maimed, and blind were brought and placed 
before her, in the firm expectation that something 
could be done at once for them, no matter how compli- 
cated the diseases might be. 

Often Miss Harding and her companion. Miss M. 
Lloyd, would find a crowd awaiting them on returning 
from a village to their breakfast. This meal they 
would have to partake of in the midst of a group of 
watching "patients" who would spring forward the 
moment the repast was finished, each wishing to be the 
first served. Only very simple physic was dispensed, 
neither of our Missionaries professing to be doctors : 
but God wonderfully blessed the remedies, and made 
them a lever to raise the barrier of prejudice and open 
hearts to the Gospel. 

Soon after the workers opened a small Dispensary 
at their village Mission centre at Mankar, twenty miles 
north of Burdwan ; and a trained medical student 
from St. Catherine's Hospital was appointed to assist 
them. Immediately the news spread and patients came 
from twenty miles away. Numbers of villages never 
before visited were thus reached, for day by day the 
Gospel was lovingly proclaimed to the waiting women. 
In five months no fewer than 1,460 patients attended 
the Dispensary, com.ing from as many as sixty-two 
villages and thirty par ahs (Hindu or Moslem quarters) 
of Mankar district. 

Such a work had to go though a baptism of fire ; and 
a month after the opening of this place of healing a 
memorable disturbance was wTought by the Enem}^ of 
Souls, whose territory was being so powerfully invaded. 



'52 



BETWEEX LIFE AXJ) DEATH 



A little, famine-stricken child was brought to our 
Missionaries. The child's mother died on the road 
from starvation, and left her little boy and girl, ten and 
seven years of age, in the hands of a poor woman 
travelling in the same company. This woman came to 
the Dispensary for medicine, bringing with her the 
little waif. Poor wee mite, she was (juite willing to 
stay and be fed, but her little brother raised a hue and 




Mankar Mission House. 



Di-.-s^in-' K. 



\-rl';iniI:.ll ill fv-Ilt is 

Imicli 111 llii' i-iu-ht. 



cry, and one hundred men, armed with sticks, mobbed 
the house, and demanded the child. Being of the low- 
est caste, thev did not really want her, but merely came 
to annov the ladies, because they were jealous of their 
influence, and of the friendliness of the people. 

We continue in the words of our heroic workers : — 
" We shall never forget tliat eventful day ! We de- 
fenceless women faced an infuriated mob of the worst 
chiracters in the place. The ringleader was a man 



CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 153 

who sells drink, and he urged the people to strike 
us down if we would not give up the child. He offered 
one hundred rupees to the man who would so injure 
me that I should never be able to preach the Gospel 
again. Their shrieks of " Beat the Mem,'' " Bring out 
the child,"' " Tear down the house," " Disgrace the 
Meiiis," were deafening. It was in vain that we tried 
to explain why we had shown kindness to the child. 
One man held his fists so close to my face that I 
expected a blow every moment. Then the words came 
to me as if audibly spoken, ' Fear not, I am with 
thee.' God did indeed stand by me, and held back the 
hands of those men, who seemed, for the time, 
possessed by Satan." 

In the end, much to the grief of our ladies, the child 
had to be given up, although the case was tried in the 
Indian law court, that so better protection might be 
afforded to the Missionaries. The prayers of Christians 
at home were full}' answered and the people became 
more friendly than e\er. Not a stone was thrown, not 
an insulting word was said, as the workers went in and 
out among them as usual. But the greatest astonish- 
ment was displayed at the ladies' courage, and the people 
wondered how it was that "' icoiucn should ha\"e the 
power of kings." 

A remarkable sequel followed. Some months after- 
wards Miss Harding was called at the eleventh hour to 
see a little child very ill with fever, who had been 
treated uith blisters, <S:c., b}' two heavily-feed native 
quacks. Entirely in answer to prayer, God blessed the 
remedies used, to the child's complete recovery, and 
a great impression was made on the famih'. Shortly 
after, the wife asked for medicine for her husband, who 
was suffering from a bad cough. Imagine the surprise 
of our Missionary when, at her next visit, the master of 
the house prostrated himself in grateful homage at her 
feet, and when face to face with him. she recognized the 
foremost rioter on that eventful dav, who had stood 



'54 



BETWEEX LIFE AND DEATH 



over her with his club, threatening her life if she 
did not give up the famine waif! 

The man's heart was completely softened. Each 
time, thenceforth, that the Missionary went in and 
out of his house she was welcomed as a friend, and her 
Message was received. 

Thus does " Clinical Christianity " appeal to the 
hearts and consciences of the people of Mankar. In 
hostile villages, where, formerly, i,ooo rupees were set 




Interior of the Dispensary. Mission House, Mankar. 

on the Missionary's head, and where the workers had 
fearlessly continued visiting and giving simple remedies 
during a visitation of cholera, they now receive the 
warmest welcome. 

New patients continue to come to the Dispensary, 
being advised by their friends to "go to the Meiiis who 
give good medicine without price, and speak kind, holy 
words," and medicine is still taken on itinerating tours. 
Two workers will sit by the roadside, on the highway 



CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 155 

to a market town, and, with their medicines arranged 
before them, waylay the passers-by. Nearly a hundred 
people will thus hear the Gospel and receive some 
remedy in a single morning. On one occasion, a man 
was beginning to argue on behalf of his gods, when 
another bystander called out, " Did the gods ever put 
it into the heart of anyone of our doctors to give medi- 
cine for nothing, as the inevi is doing ? '' 

Even in the forest villages a welcome awaits their 
didi, or elder sister, as the women delight to call their 
Missionary friend. " Didi has come and brought her 
medicines, and she speaks good words; come and 
listen." 

The Dispensary is held in the little house occupied 
by the Missionaries. The patients begin to assemble at 
7 a.m., and, before they are attended to, prayers are 
held in the dining-room with the Bible women. 
Naturall}', the women are inquisitive enough to pull 
aside the curtain to discover what the Mevis are doing, 
and the remark of one patient to another is often over- 
heard, '■ These Christians pray to God to bless the 
medicine, and that is why it does us so much good." 

" They have wonderful faith in us," sa}-s Miss 
Harding, '' and, though we tell them we are not 
doctors — I often wish I were a doctor, and need send 
none awa}' ! — they are certain we can do something. 
' What ! all those medicines and you cannot give me 
one drop ! ' said an old woman who had walked twenty 
miles, when I told her I could do nothing for her 
disease because I am not a doctor. We are sorely 
needing a fully-equipped medical lady, and are asking 
God to send us one."" 

At Mankar, our Missionaries are twent}--five miles 
from a doctor ; and there is no Medical Mission 
thrcjughout the Burdwan district — somewhat larger 
than Lancashire, and containing one million and 
a half of inhabitants. 

Krishnagar, a sacred Hindu citv, the resort of 



156 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

pilgrims to the shrine of Chaitanya, is a stronghold 
of Hinduism, and, therefore, has its own special 
difficulties as a Mission Station. Here, in consequence. 
Medical Mission work became slowly, but surely in- 
dispensable to the success of the general agency. 
Opposition amounting almost to persecution attended 
the earliest efforts, but prejudice was overcome, and 
through the kindness chiefly of the former Collector 
and his wife, the workers w^ere able to build and double 
the size of the original Dispensary. 

Miss R. M. Phailbus has had charge of the 
Medical work ever since it began in i8go, and is now 
assisted by Miss Bose. Miss Phailbus is a Panjabi 
lady, w^ho had five years' medical training at St. 
Catherine's, Amritsar, and holds Government 
diplomas. In her one sees a remarkably encouraging 
specimen of the result of Missionary effort. Her 
father was a native clergyman, she was educated in 
the Alexandra High School, was trained at a Mission 
Hospital, and is now labouring as a Medical Missionary 
among her Indian sisters, respected and loved b\- all 
with whom she has to do. She is assisted by a staff 
of Bengali trained assistants. The Dispensar}- is 
situated in the middle of the town, and in a ver}' 
bigoted portion of it. The verandah, holding about 
eighty patients, is packed with women e\-ery morning 
except Saturday and Sunday, and singing of Gospel 
hymns, and preaching goes on every day for about 
four hours. As many as 1,900 new patients, and 
1,300 old patients will receive treatment at the 
Dispensar}', and seven hundred visits at least will be 
paid to others at their homes during the year. 

One day a woman appeared and informed Miss 
Phailbus that she had walked tweK'e miles as she had 
heard that the Missionary knew how to feel pulses. 
She looked plump and well, so she was asked why 
she wanted her pulse felt. "'To know when I am 
going to die," she replied, to the amusement of the 



CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY 157 

other patients. But advantage was taken of the 
incident to point this dark soul to Clirist, and she 
went away much impressed. 

No charge is made for medicine, but the patients 
have to bring their own " bottles," and it is 
amusing to see the extraordinary variety of receptacles 
covered by that word. A woman will present a tiny 
bottle expecting that a cough mixture to last two days 
for her child, and a lotion for her own rheumatism 
can be put together, and is quite astonished when 
told to bring another and a larger bottle. They 
have become accustomed to taking medicine from 
Christians, although to take food from them would 
break caste ; but even now, the water necessary for 
mixing the physic has to be kept in large medicine 
bottles, and dispensed like medicine to prevent arous- 
ing caste prejudices. 

The Dispensary gate, opened at 7 a.m., is closed at 
10.30 a.m. ; but during that time, in the rainy season, 
as many as 200 patients will have entered. Each one 
receives and retains a numbered ticket for which she 
pays 2 pice on her first visit. These tickets are made 
from Mrs. Grimke's text-cards, and are often kept for 
years. The patients are passed into the consulting- 
room in order according to the numbers on their 
tickets. 

x\ very interesting out-patient was a woman, 
Kamini by name, a silversmith's wife. For three 
months she came regularly to the Dispensary, bring- 
ing her little granddaughter with a bad foot, and 
would sit near the Bible-woman listening attentively. 
When the child recovered she returned to her home 
in a distant country town, taking a Gospel with 
her. Nearly two years afterwards, when a Zenana 
Missionary and this same Bible woman were out in 
camp, they came upon Kamini in her own home. It 
was touching to see the delight with which she 
welcomed them, and heard once more the Words of 



15S BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Life. They found, to their great joy, that she was 
still believing in Christ, and speaking of Him to her 
children and Hindu neighbours. 

For a long time the workers felt the need of, at 
least, a room where serious cases could be nursed for 
a time ; and in the summer of 1895 they opened a 
tiny Hospital in their own compound. This was 
accomplished by fitting up the large " Converts' 
Room " as a ward, with portions separated at either 
end by wooden screens, to form a class room, doctor's 
examination room, and bathing (cemented) room for 
the patients. 

It was no easy task for the superintending 
Missionary to oversee the carpentering required to 
make the screens fit into one another, and also into 
the uneven ground. All the wood-work that touched 
the floor had to be co\ered with pitch, to prevent the 
whole being eaten up by white ants. These uninvited 
inmates came up out of the ground in all directions — 
like an army. " I poured pitch into some of their 
habitations," said Miss Collisson, " only to see them 
come up out of a fresh hole. Then I bathed them in 
kerosine oil with better success." 

The room, however, made a charming little ex- 
temporized Hospital. It contains six beds and a cot, 
and looks very airy and inviting, with bright Scripture 
pictures and texts hung around. It is very keenl}- 
appreciated. One of the beds, it is delightful to note, 
is being supported by the girls of a ?>Iission vSchool 
in China. 

The iron beds and bedding are of the simplest 
description — straw mattresses laid on boards, two 
sheets and a counterpane, complete the furniture of 
each. 

Patients are gcneralh' astir by 5.30 a.m. when the 
night nurse makes their beds. At 6 a.m. a Bible Class 
is held for the nurses every day except Saturday, the 
Hospital being left in the charge of a special helper. 



CLIXICAL CHRISTIANITY 15^ 

After this the day nurse comes on duty, taking tempera- 
tures, giving out the milk and bread, and then under- 
taking all sponging and dressing of patients, which 
goes on until 10 o'clock. At 10.30 breakfast is given, 
some enjoying vegetables with curry and rice, and 
others sago and milk. Miss Phailbus usually makes her 
morning round at 7.30 a.m., and again at 12.30 mid- 
da)-. At 2 p.m., milk and soup and bread are served 
and then the patients ha^•e a quiet rest until 3.30, when 
the afternoon nurse comes to take the temperatures and 
to do other necessary things. At 5 o'clock the doctor 
again goes round and prescriptions, &c. are written. 
From 4 to 5 p.m. the patients are allowed to receive 
visits from their friends. After this praN'ers are taken. 
First a luirm is sung, followed by a short Gospel 
address and the offering of a simple prayer, committing 
each patient to the Great Ph\sician's care. Then 
comes dinner, the diet varying according to the illness 
of the patient, after which those who are able to walk 
are sent into the open a'r for a little stroll. At 7 p.m. 
the night nurse comes on dut\-, and at 10 o'clock Miss 
Phailbus makes her last round. 

Sunday differs in many respects from the ordinary 
day. No sweeping or dusting that is not absolutely 
necessary is done, and all surgical dressings that can 
be left safely wait until Monday. The Gospel address 
is gi\'en at 3.30 p.m., and very often the nurses sing to 
the patients in the evening. The patients are quick 
to observe and appreciate the difference made by the 
Christians on their holy day. Not ^■ery long ago a 
poor woman reported to the doctor on Monday 
morning tliat she had been suffering great pain on 
Saturday night. A\'hen remonstrated with for not 
having mentioned it before, she replied, " Yesterday 
was Sunda}', how could I disturb God's Da}' with my 
ailments ! " 

Some especiall}- interesting cases from a doctor's 
point of \-iew ha\e been treated successfully in this 



i6o BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

small Home of Healing. A poor, thin woman, brought 
in a bullock-cart by her husband, was found in a 
burning fever, her right leg and knee a mass of running 
sores. She had been treated by all the village doctors 
and quacks, who had given her up as a hopeless case. 
The assistant surgeon at the Government Hospital 
had advised amputation, and for the first two months 
at Krishnagar, this last resource seemed mevitable. 
Ten weeks after her admission, her little baby was born, 
and soon afterwards she began to improxe, though she 
was unable to leave her bed for four and a half months. 
When at last she left the Hospital, the leg was almost 
completely healed, and has proved to be permanently 
cured. It is not surprising that she believes that the 
Christians have a pra3'er-hearing God. 

Although the patients shew a good deal of fortitude 
in bearing pain, they shrink from an\thing that can be 
likened to an operation. The sight of a clinical 
thermometer is quite enough to frighten many a 
woman, who will rush away screaming should she 
be requested to place such an " instrument " under her 
arm. 

From the beginning of the \\ork. there have been 
definite spiritual results. Some of the patients have 
become earnest Christian workers as teachers or 
assistant medical helpers. One, a Mahommedan, in 
spite of her relatives' opposition, was received into 
the Converts" Home at Baranagore, and was there 
baptized. Her life has been most consistent ever 
since. By her own desire she returned to the Mission 
House at Krishnagar to learn to be a nurse in the 
same Hospital and Dispensary where she herself found 
Christ. 

The seven beds in this little Hospital are always 
full, and many cases have to be refused. The two 
workers and their staff have their hands full with the 
two dispensaries, the hospital, and private visiting. 
The visits of out-patients in the year now amount to 



CLINICAL CHRISTIANITY i6i 

nearl}' 27,000, and over 700 visits have been paid to 
pardah patients in the same period. The houses of 
the rich and high caste have ahke opened to Zenana 
Missionaries through the successful medical treatment. 
Even the Palace was re-opened to Christian teaching 
through the same influence, the young Rani having 
received benefit from Miss Phailbus' medical advice, 
and thereafter giving her and her friend, the Zenana 
Missionary, a warm and loving welcome. 

The Dispensary has now (igoi) again to be en- 
larged, owing to the recjuirements of the steadily 
growing work. This has aroused the jealous}' of the 
Hindus and much opposition, so that, for a time the 
workmen were not allowed to go on building, and, 
although the new verandah is finished and in use, 
the Municipality will not yet consent to steps being 
put up. But our workers are fully assured that while, 
in this fresh outbreak of antagonism, the early history 
of the ^fission is being repeated, God's work will 
not be o\-erturned, and that He will over-rule all to 
the extension of His Kingdom. 



CHAPTER \Mi 

/ WAS SICK 

or 

Hospitals mid Dispeiisarics in the Punjab 

" Where wast Thou sick, Lord, and we knew it not ? 
Had we but known, how swift had been our feet 
To bear us to Thy couch ! Ah, service sweet 
To watch beside Thee in the dreariest spot" — 

" Far off I lay, in heathen lands forgot 
By thee and all. The blood of lepers beat 
In the poor limbs. The glare of China's heat 
Fell on My head —thou didst not share my lot 
In Persia, when the skill-less hakim^s arts 
Had almost broke the silver cord. The sun 
Shone in an Indian room ; thou didst not see 
My form on that bare tloor. These broken hearts 
Thou didst not bind. For that thou hast not done 
It unto these, thou didst it not to Me." 

E.F.F. 

Dr. Livingstone wrote, " I am a Missionary, heart and soul, 
(lod had an only Son, and He was a Missionary and Physician. 
A poor imitation of Him I am or wish to be. In this service I 
hope to live, and in it I wish to die." 

HOSPITAL work has been called ''the intensiform 
evangelistic department " of Missionar}- work. 
Few, perhaps, yet realise the immense influence 
for good radiating from the simplest and 
humblest Dispensar}' which is opened in a heathen land 
in the Name of Christ. God give wisdom to the bra\e 



I WAS SICK 163 

workers in the little Homes of Healing dotted over 
India and other lands — so many toiling against great 
difficulties ; so many inadequately supported and barely 
equipped ! 

Dr. C. Vines sketches very forcibly the benefits 
accruing to Indian Village women from the Mission 
Hospital and its adjuncts. 

" One sees more and more what an important part 
of Village Missions is the medical work, how far-reach- 
ing its results. 

"The districts are large, the distances great. The 
village Missionary goes daily to the villages around her 
near at hand, but the numberless equally populous 
places at a distance she can visit only when itinerating. 
Dividing her district into two, she can visit one-half 
only during each of the itinerating tours. Should bad 
weather, sickness, or special calls come during that 
cool month, and she cannot go, it will be two years 
before she visits those villages again. One visit, one 
hour's teaching, two 3'ears' interval — how can the 
heathen mind remember ? Meanwhile, numberless 
women are dying knowing but the name of the 
Saviour, and that as a far-off memory. 

" We might invite a woman to come to stay in our 
compound to be taught. She would smile and shake 
her head. But when sickness befalls her or her little 
ones, she first goes to the ' wise women,' or procures 
medicine of the village doctor. She gets no better, 
and at last in despair cries, ' I will go to the Miss 
Sahibas \ ' '' You cannot go,' shriek the neighbours. 
' What a disgrace ! ' But day after day she persists. 
At last they shrug their shoulders. ' It is fate,' they 
say. ' Go ! if you die, you die ; if you live, well and 
good.' She comes, timid, shrinking, suspicious, ready 
at the least word to take alarm and fly. Day by day 
she becomes more reconciled to her new surroundings. 
At first she would say, ' When will you cure me ? How 
many days more ? \\'hen may I go ? ' Xow, when her 



1 64 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

relatives come to fetch her home, she pleads, ' Wait a 
few more da\-s ; I am not cured yet.' x\t last she goes 
out, well and happy, and in a few days come those 
same neighbours, bringing their sick. They, too, hear 
the Message and return. And now we know that there 
is one in that far-off village who, whether she accept it 
or not, has heard the story of Christ's love too oftento 
forget it ; that she will be asked to repeat what she has 
heard again and again ; and that when others are in 
suffering that woman will be the first to say, ' Go 
to the Mission Hospital.' " 

In Beliind tJie PardaJi, we have attempted to out- 
line the history of our largest C.E.Z.M.S. Home of 
Healing, and, perhaps, in many ways the most 
remarkable of our agencies — St. Catherine's Hospital, 
Amritsar. Together with its variety of branches that 
have sprung from the parent stem, it stands as a centre 
of physical and spiritual healing. Its influence radiates 
an immense distance, since it is a recruiting and 
training ground for Indian Christian nurses. Again 
and again in the course of these chapters we have 
referred to this Institution as having supplied workers 
to the Stations described in all parts of India. In 
1900 as many as twenty-seven native workers were 
employed at St. Catherine's, all of them truly 
Christian women, seventeen of whom had become 
converts through the instrumentality of Medical 
Missions. 

Miss Hewlett, the Missionary-in-charge, and 
foundress of the work, has never wearied of her labour 
of lo\-e, and her faith and courage have been honoured 
by marvellous success. From a tiny City Dispensary 
of only two rooms, opened in 1880, in the Mahom- 
medan quarter of Amritsar, where, on the first day, 
only one woman timidly presented herself for treat- 
ment, the institution has expanded to a building 255ft. 
in length, capable of holding forty-two patients, while 
altogether one hundred people li\c upon the premises. 



/ ]VAS SICK 165 

St. Catherine's is no modern nor handsome build- 
ing, but an irregular pile which has come together by 
accretion, growing with the growth of the work ; in 
reality a collection of houses and compounds communi- 
cating with one another, and adapted to meet the 
varied requirements of its suffering or destitute 
inhabitants. 

Three large Dispensaries are connected with it, the 
third being situated close to the Golden Temple, at a 
spot frequented by women who come to bathe in 
the Sacred Tank, and, therefore, peculiarl}- advan- 
tageous. A Converts' School, a training home for 
nurses and compounders, a Creche, an Industrial 
Home for the Blind, and a Convalescent Home for 
Destitute Women, are some of the agencies grouped 
together around St. Catherine's ; in addition to which 
are such vigorous offshoots as St. Mary's, Tarn Taran, 
and Baharwal-Atari, of which we treat in subsequent 
pages, as they are now separate institutions and 
stations. 

As early as 1884 the care of the Maternity Hospital 
was committed to Miss Hewlett by the municipal 
authorities, since which time the systematic training of 
daici has always been a most important and successful 
department of the work. Naturally, opportunities for 
reaching women in their own homes have multiplied, 
and Zenana visitation has received a tremendous 
impetus. 

In her report for i goo- 190 1, the first year of the 
third decade of the Hospital, Miss Hewlett based her 
record of God's work in St. Catherine's on the words, 
'' Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that the plow- 
man shall overtake the reaper, and the treadei of 
grapes him that soweth the seed" — Amos ix. 13, and 
speaks thus : — 

•' Many English friends will ne\er see our pretty, 
cheerful wards ; they can onh' imagine them : and yet 
they are reaping in them, with us, the blessed fruits of 



1 66 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

what has been sown by them as much as by us. It 
is wonderful what a change comes over patients who 
stay some time to be nursed. The poor creature who 
came in very ill, and so stupid and ignorant that she 
seemed to lie like a senseless log, almost incapable 
of understanding anything, and practically without any 
idea at all of God, seems to have become a different 
woman by the time she is well enough to sit up ; so 
civilized at least, and so awakening to some facts 
beyond eating and sleeping, that she even has her 
choice of a hymn, and will say her text at the Sunday 
afternoon service. She has been aroused in some 
measure to a sense of God's love for her ; she likes to 
listen to those who try to teach her of Him, and she 
will get up and kneel by her bed quite voluntarily, 
while the Miss Sahiba prays, and will grow accustomed 
to asking a blessing on her food. But she will go 
away, back perhaps to a distant village. Will all the 
work be lost, and hope disappointed? It may often 
seem so, but the seed has been sown, and we do have 
our old patients back, glad to come, and willing to be 
taught more. One such did return about a year and a 
half ago, and was baptized early in the year. Her 
name is Tabi ; she is a quiet, happy Christian, and 
is certainly growing in grace and knowledge. She is a 
paral3'tic, so must be a chronic in-patient. Another 
such case is that of a poor, blind woman who a year ago 
was anxious for baptism, but who went away to fetch 
her child and was forcibly detained. At last she has 
come again : her child is dead, and she is now anxious 
to be received alone, as an inquirer. She is a chronic 
patient, and needs constant care and being ministered 
to. May her case be laid on some hearts to plead for 
her full salvation ! Her name is Bholi. We may have 
a bright and blessed hope that in this instance, as in 
that of others, the plou^hinan shall overtake the reaper, 
and the treader of grapes him that soweth seed.'' 

Again the Hospital has had to be enlarged, this time 



/ WAS SICK 167 

by the addition of three wards, representing six new 
beds. The enlargement was undertaken, partly on 
account of the influx of Faminees, who have to run the 
gauntlet of numberless ills and a hard struggle for life 
consequent upon their exhausted condition when 
rescued ; and partly for increased working space, possi- 
bilities of isolation for infectious cases, and to gain 
quiet and more suitable out-patient rooms, together 
with a generally improved sanitary condition. 

It was a costly undertaking, for much needed to be 
done after carrying on in-patient and out-patient 
departments so long in too strait a place. But the 
workers waited until God gave the means to do the 
work thoroughly, and to pay the workmen week by 
week, without debt or difficulty. Kind and faithful 
friends came forward to supply the need, and all was 
met in a manner that could leave no doubt that God 
Himself was guiding and providing the unsought 
means. 

We have already spoken of C.E.Z. work in 
rescuing the famine-stricken. A large share in this 
special ministry has been taken by the Amritsar 
workers, and during 1900 fifty widows and children 
from the Bhil country were received at St. Catherine's. 
Of the physical and spiritual help they derived. Miss 
Hewlett remarks as follows : — 

" As we sit writing, or taking our meals, we have 
this crowd of 'heathen ' women within a few feet of us, 
yet so well-conducted, so civilized, and so orderly are 
they already, that no one would know they were there 
unless they were told, and, if taken into their quarters, 
you would see groups of quietly happy women, cooking, 
spinning, or making clothes, while they go in sets, by 
turns, into the schoolroom for a ' little schooling.' 
The \\'onien are making progress in 
Scripture knowledge, and the heart of their teacher is 
much encouraged. It is delightful to hear them sing 
hymns ; they have sweeter and truer voices than 



1 68 BETWEliX LIFE AM) DEATH 

Panjabis have, and they seem also to enter into the 
meaning" of the words, and to beheve the truths of 
which the}' sing. We feel assured that God will bring 
them all to Himself. . . . Onl}' one of the 
women has died, and she passed away in faith. She 
said, after she had simply accepted Christ, ' I must 
have been brought all this long way to hear this good 
news.' If we needed convincing of the vanity of forms 
and ceremonies, and the utter uselessness of teaching 
heathen the intricate views and the cumbersome ritual 
observances which ma}- suit less simple minds, it is 
only necessary to watch the reception of plain Gospel 
truth by hungry souls such as these women and 
children — the manner in which it works its own way, 
and the marvellous change it effects in lives where it is 
received. Pray that these women ma\' some da}' 
return to the Bhil country. Spirit-filled Christians, to 
carry to their old friends the Gospel of sahation ! " 

And so in this one Home of Healing, the devoted 
workers minister to as man}- as 33,000 in the year, 
while upwards of J, 000 visits are paid to patients in 
their homes. Who can gauge the result of such wide- 
spread seed-sowing and individual dealing with sin- 
sick souls as these figures represent ? Onlv that 
" Day " will '' declare " it. 

Turning from the parent to the daughter, we w-end 
our way to St. Mary's Hospital, Tarn Taran, the 
largest offshoot of St. Catherine's. 

Second among the sacred cities of the Sikhs, Tarn 
Taran has a population of 6,000, with over 300 Nillages 
surrounding it. Fourteen miles south of Amritsar, a 
small Dispensary was opened and worked from St. 
Catherine's as long ago as 1884 ; and it was regularly 
occupied in 1888. Now (igoi) the Hospital is in the 
care of two qualified lady doctors. Over 400 in- 
patients are being received annually, and 12,000 attend 
the Hospital and Dispensaries for advice during the 
same period. 



/ WAS SICK T69 

The story of the gradual growth of this Hospital is 
interesting, but we can only outline it here. An 
English nurse, Mrs. Reardon, whose name is still held 
in affectionate remembrance by the people, and a 
native lady at first took charge of the little Dispensary, 
and lived in a native house ; but very soon it became 
necessary to build a small dwelling for the two 
workers outside the City, Mrs. Reardon supplying the 
money from private sources. 

This house, intended for Indian ladies, was built in 
nati\e style, its rooms surrounding and all opening 
into a central court, with only one door leading from 
the court to the compound, thus making it quite 
pa yd ah. 

In 1888, Miss Grimwood took charge of the 
Medical work; more workers were sent out, and 
assistant Missionaries came to reside in the house, 
which, consequentl}', had to be enlarged. The work, 
in fact, so quickly increased that a Hospital became an 
absolute necessity, and, in 1889, the Government 
stables were handed over, and were turned into a large 
ward, a good brick-built verandah being built all 
round. To this, as converts and workers came, houses 
were added, and also a school for healthy children of 
lepers. 

Six years later, the ward was pulled down in order 
to build a more satisfactory structure on the old 
foundation, and the next }'ear, 1897, Miss \'ines, 
L.R.C.P. & S., Ed., took charge of the work, 
relinquished by Miss Grimwood on her marriage. 
More land was obtained ; a new operating-room and 
house lor converts and nurses were built. Eour years 
later, Miss Gregg, L.R.C.P. & S. Ed., joined Dr. C. 
Vines, as fellow-worker. Now, in 1901, the patients 
are outgrowing the present building, and an entireh* 
new Hospital is becoming a growing and pressing 
need. 

St. Mary's, as it now exists, is a Ion;::, narrow 



lyo 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



building. At one end of the ward are the Dispensary 
and consulting room, Vv-hile the ward itself opens on 
one side into a yard, shared alike by patients, converts, 

nurses, and children 
— a very undesirable 
but unavoidable 
arrangement. The 
verandah opens into 
another yard, where 
the out-patients 
listen to the Bible- 
woman's address. 

The ward, with 
its red brick floor, 
and whitewashed 
walls with brown 
dado, looks always 
clean and inviting. 
The name of each 
bed is above it, with 
the text chosen by 
its supporter. Above 

Miss K. Gregg, L.R.C.P. and S.. Ed. ^J^ggg Yid^^or large 

Scripture pictures. Over the central fireplace is 
painted the text, '• Heal the sick that are therein, and 
say unto them that the Kingdom of Gcd is come nigh 
unto you " ; while over that at the end of the ward is 
inscribed, "The power of the Lord was present to 
heal them." 

The bedsteads, twelve in number, are of iron, laced 
with the universal nau;ay, or broad country tape, 
which serves the purpose of mattress, and is easily 
removed, and so kept clean and sweet. Each patient, 
on her arrival, is given a dhtirri, i.e., countr}--made 
thick cotton mat, a sheet, pillow, pillow case, and 
blanket, with the addition in winter of a thick, cotton- 
wadded quilt, called a rcsai. Ever}' bed is covered 
with a brightly-coloured patchwork quilt, made by 




/ WAS SICK 171 

friends at home, which makes the ward look 
charmingly gay and interesting. For lying in the 
yard, light bamboo bedsteads are supplied. In the 
summer, the patients sleep out of doors, but in the 
winter, large fires have to be kept up all night. 

The patients receive two proper meals in the day, 
consisting of vegetable curry, eaten with either bread 
or rice, the bread being four or five flat cakes made of 
flour. Three times besides in the day milk and light 
refreshments are given. 

" When our patients enter the Hospital," says Dr. 
Vines, "they are each given an earthen vesselfor drink- 
ing water. If the woman be a Hindu, she also 
receives a metal (brass and copper) plate and cup. 
These she cleans herself with earth and ashes — we 
never touch them, as it would ' defile ' them ! A 
Mahommedan woman gets a copper plate and cup well 
tinned (to prevent copper poisoning), the tinning being 
done regularly by an old man who comes for the 
purpose every month. Christians also use these 
copper vessels. To sweepers are given earthen pots 
which are broken when the woman leaves the Hospital. 

" A special kitchen is reserved, in which a young 
man and his mother cook for our patients. They are 
of the Maira caste, a special Hindu cooking and 
water-giving caste. This young cook has the stores 
and firewood given out to him each day. We may 
never go into his kitchen, or else it would be defiled 
• — no Christian, Mahommedan, or sweeper ever being 
allowed to set foot inside. The Hindus themselves 
walk freel}- in and out. I have never once been in 
that room ! When the }'oung fellow is taking the 
food round he holds it high up in the air, lest by 
chance any other than a Hindu should overshadow the 
food. As he arrives at the beds he throws the bread 
at the patients, being careful not to touch them. I 
thought this seemed very rude at first, until I found 
out the reason. This man also fetches water from th? 



172 BKTWKRX LIFE AXD DEATH 

well, for the Hindu patients, in iron vessels which we 
must be careful not to touch. Any vessel that we 
accidentally touch becomes jutha, i.e., dehled, and has 
to be ceremonially cleansed — sometimes by being 
given to a horse to smell ! 

"The Hindus prefer to be apart from the other 
patients, but, if the beds are rather separated, they do 
not object to Mahommedans and Christians sharing 
the same ward, on the opposite side." 

Malarial lever and consumption are \er)' common 
complaints amongst the adult patients. Children 
suffer from measles, hooping cough, and mumps, and 
all complaints common to childhood in Great Britain, 
and also dysentery and pneumonia, which are very 
fatal. 

The women are very anxious for chloroform to be 
administered to them, its fame having spread to quite 
remote places. " Cause me to smell the bottle " is 
a frequent request. 

God has very signall}' blessed the work and testi- 
mony of His servants at St. Mary's. Women with 
sad histories of a past life, and widows with no ties to 
keep them back, have come out boldly for Christ, and 
have taken the step which has cut them off from their 
own people and placed them in the rank of Christian 
women. But it must be remembered — and the fact 
has a widespread application to other Stations and 
Hospitals — that the bulk of the patients, women with 
husbands and children, cannot come out and desert 
them to confess Christ outwardly. If they believe, 
they must do so secret!}-, and He Who accepted 
Naaman's worship in his far-off land doubtless accepts 
these hidden believers, and will Himself, sooner or 
later, make it possible for them to come forward for 
baptism. Such need our earnest prayers. If the men 
are won for (iod, the \\-omen can jox-fully follow 
them in their confession. God hasten the time 
when women can be Christians in name and deed. 



/ WAS SICK tn 

and yet continue their natural, simple, and free 
village life ! 

In her little book. Through My Comnlting Room, 
Dr. Vines has graphically described scenes in the Tarn 
Taran Dispensary showing the varied classes, tempera- 
ments, and conditions of her out-patients. 

Discouragements and encouragements, gratitude 
and ingratitude, follow one another, or come side by 
side to the patient workers. Two incidents will 
illustrate this. 

A. strange-looking woman — " more like a monke}^ 
than a human being," says the doctor — was carried 
into the Hospital one day. Her condition from neglect 
was too fearful to describe. She had fallen into a fire 
and was burnt all over, and her friends, in trying to do 
their best for her, had plastered the scarified body with 
burnt bread. For days she had lain in this untended 
poultice, and now was too weak even to raise herself. 

\'ery special and constant was the care bestowed 
upon her, and she was progressing marvellously, when 
suddenly her son appeared, and insisted on taking her 
"home as she was "no better." Yet she went out with 
him, walking, and looking a different being, although 
unwilling to acknowledge what had been done for her. 

But such a case is by no means common, and the 
remaining incident is one that is repeated in effect 
again and again. 

" We went into a village this morning," says the 
doctor, " and sat down in the chief man's house. The 
usual audience of women and children quickly 
appeared. Some were friendly, some were curious, 
and all were more or less noisy. It was hot and dusty, 
and the mud wall gave out a trying glare. Miss Han- 
bury began to sing a Mission hhajan (hymn), and a 
silence fell on the women. They liked the singing, 
they liked the words, and for a time they forgot to ask 
their numerous, tiresome questions. Suddenly someone 
came pushing her way through the crowd, and sat 



174 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

down at our feet. She would be heard, she would 
interrupt, everything must stop till she had greeted us 
her friends, and told everyone that ' these were her 
mothei and father.' She was full of gratitude ; she had 
been to the Hospital, and had been cured. We could 
not remember her face, but she remembered us well. 
Then she settled down to listen, and oh ! the differ- 
ence. She showed an intelligent interest in all she 
heard and knew the Gospel story well, and was able to 
supply remarks of her own to the listening women. 
' Don't be afraid to go with them,' she said, ' you 
remember what I was.' " 

Majitha, an out-station of Amritsar, from the first 
warmly welcomed our Missionaries and the Bible 
woman, who was the first worker stationed there, and 
who won her way into the surrounding villages. On a 
visit with Miss A. Singh, in i8g8, Miss Margaret Jack- 
son found the people flocking to her daily, from early 
morning till it was quite dark, sometimes hardly allow- 
ing their visitors time to eat their meals, and entreating 
them to come oftener and to stay longer. Again in 
i8gg, Miss Havard and Miss Tuting visited Majitha, 
and the appealing cry of the women was, " When will 
you open the Dispensary? " It was heart-breaking to 
the workers to see the great suffering among women 
and children around them and to be unable to give any 
prospect of relief. 

Very shortly afterwards, however, through the kind- 
ness of local friends, touched by the greatness of the 
need, means were promised to carry on a Dispensary 
for one year, and others in the home-land responded 
also. In April, iSgg, the Dispensary was opened, and 
women from as many as seventy outlying ^'illages 
began to attend. 

An Indian testimony to the value of this little Home 
of Healing is of great interest. Babu Peter, head- 
master of the Boys' Mission School at Majitha, wrote 
thus to an Urdu Indian paper : — 



} Was sick 175 

** In this town, whose inhabitants are about 8,000, 
there is a Government male Hospital in which there is 
an assistant of the first degree. Also the Civil Surgeon 
from Amritsar comes four or five times a year to super- 
intend. But for women there was very great trouble ; 
they did not like to speak of their sickness before the 
face of a man-doctor ; on this account, very often their 
disease is greatly increased. 

"At last God has had pity on this need, and stirred 
up the Mission ladies to open a Dispensary here, 
where His glory may be shown among the women also. 
Therefore Miss Wauton Sahiba, by her endeavours, 
obtained some land from the late Sirdar Dugal Singh, 
and built a house there for a Zenana lady, a lady 
doctor, and a Dispensary. 

" In 1897, the Honourable Padri Clark Sahib came 
from Amritsar, with other European Missionaries, and 
with prayer and worship the house was consecrated. 
In the month of April, i8gg, Miss Mulaim-ud-din 
Sahiba began the work of this Dispensary. She herself 
received instruction in Miss Hewlett Sahiba's school 
(i.e. Hospital) in Amritsar. By her own worth, sweet 
temper, and amiability she has made herself beloved in 
Majitha, and has become so famous that from far, very 
far, women come for treatment. Indeed on some days 
the number of patients amounts to nearly ninety. All 
the women run like locusts to the Zenana Dispensary. 
Miss Tuting Sahiba lives with the lady doctor. Before 
the medicine is distributed she gathers all the women 
together, and after singing hymns with the musical 
instrument (concertina), she recites something from 
the Gospel. Then the medicine is given. Later in the 
day she goes to the houses of the women, taking 
her concertina, and gives instruction from the Bible. It 
is a very difficult thing for a lady to leave the cit}- 
and come to live in a town where there is no other 
European. This is exceeding self-denial." 

A year after the Dispensary had been opened, the 



176 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

number of old and new patients was not far short 
of 12,000, and in the autumn of 1900 Miss Tutin^^ 
wrote : — 

" We get hearty welcomes in those villages where 
women have been to the Dispensary, and many, when 
they come, beg us to visit them in their homes. They 
express very warm gratitude both in word and deed for 
relief given. Once we were invited to dinner in a 
Mahommedan house, to celebrate the recoveiy of a 
little granddaughter. We had to send our own 
servant to cook it according to our taste, and to 
provide our own knives and forks, &c. We ate the 
meal in solitary state, the ladies of the house not 
' intruding ' themselves on us till afterwards ! We 
have evidence that the words spoken, and the help 
given, day by day, are not unfruitful. One woman, 
hearing the story of the Good .Samaritan, went home, 
and began at once carefully to tend a friendless neigh- 
bour who was very ill." 

Work in the Majitha Dispensar}', as well as in every 
other branch of Medical Mission work, shows some of 
the dark side of human nature. More than once, 
women have come for medicine themselves and said 
nothing about the babies in their arms, who were in a 
terribly suffering condition, though, as a rule, mother- 
love is as strong in India as anywhere. One woman 
brought her daughter, a 3'oung girl, for treatment. 
She had a terrible broken abscess in the neck, one eye 
had been almost blinded by a kick from her sister-in-law, 
and her feet were covered with blisters from being 
made to walk long distances barefoot. When the 
mother found her in this state in her mother-in-law's 
house she wisely brought her awa}' to her own 
home. 

A fulh-ciualified medical worker is a growing 
necessity in this needv field. " Is there no one at 
home," sa}'s Miss Tuting, " who will iill the breach ? 
Would that the poor sick women could plead their own 



/ WAS SICK 



177 



cause ! For our words are too tame to express the 
greatness of their need." 

At Baharwal Atari, a picturesque village about half- 
way between Lahore and Amritsar, in the Punjab, 
there is a peculiarly interesting Medical Mission, inas- 
much as it was the first of the C.E.Z.M.S. Stations to be 
put under the care of an Indian worker, trained by the 
Societ}'. After supplementing her Indian knowledge 
and training gained at St. Catherine's Hospital, Amrit- 
sar, by a two years' medical course in England, Miss 




The VTalting Crowd in the Asrapur Dispensary. 

Kheroth Bose (daughter of an Indian pleader, and an 
old Alexandra schoolgirl) is showing what a noble 
sphere of usefulness to her countrywomen maybe filled 
b}' a daughter of India. And a widow, a Brahmin lady 
by birth, who first heard the Gospel in a Mission 
School, is now working as Bible-woman, and reads to 
the patients attending the Dispensary. 

The Station was occupied by the C.E.Z.M.S. at the 

X 



lyS BETWEEX LIFE AND DEATH 

invitation of the late Rev. H. E. Perkins, and when, in 
iSgo, Miss Bose was appointed to Baharwal Atari, she 
began to expand the medical work which had been 
begun by Mrs. Perkins — in her bedroom for want of a 
better place. Asrapur Dispensary, the " Place of 
Hope," has grown into a roomy Hospital. During the 
famine of 1897 the people who came to beg were set to 
work on new Dispensary buildings, and most con- 
venient consulting, operating, Dispensary, and waiting 
rooms, with a good compound on either side, were 
added to the original building, to the great comfort of 
the workers. Writmg in 1900, Miss Bose, now 
assisted by two other Indian workers, says: — "Our 
Hospital has developed and grown so much now as to 
attract numbers of patients from the district around. 
It is almost too much for the present staff." The 
fourteen beds had been occupied by 232 in-patients 
during the year, and no fewer than 17,001 visits had 
been paid by out-patients. Some interesting incidents 
at Asrapur we have already given elsewhere.* It is a 
great thing for the patients to see something of the 
lives and homes of other Christians besides those who- 
minister to them ; and this they are able to do in the 
simple, homel}' life at Asrapur where all the Christians 
live in the same compound. Another interesting 
feature of this work is the help and S3mpathy gi\en b}' 
man}' Indian ladies, friends of Miss Bose, some of 
whom undertake the support of two beds. Miss Bose's 
niece has become an honorary worker, and is rendering 
much service in nursing, dispensing. lVc. A militar\- 
surgeon at Amritsar, an earnest, Christian man is 
always ready to undertake difficult operations, and is 
truly interested in both the medical and spiritual 
aspects of the work. 

Ajnala, a Punjal)i village, where another Home of 
Healing now stands, has been vividl\- pictured to the 
readers oi India's U^onicn, by Miss Dewar : — 

* Oj//- Si/ffci'iJij^ S/s/rrs, Chapter x. Behind the Parddh, p. 188. 



/ ]VAS SICK 



179 



" Twenty years ago, the traveller on his way to the 
village of Ajnala, passed along miles of dusty roads, 
bordered on either side b}- sJiishani and acacia trees. 
Near the village, on the left hand, could be seen a 
slightly rising ground. Being somewhat high, no 
water could lie on it, nothing grew there, and it was a 
movmd of sand. Now, though the road is just the 
same, where the mound of sand ustd to be there is a 




Emmanuel Hospital, Ajnala, Punjab. 



bright, clean Christian C^ompound. large enougli to be 
called a village. This is the Mission Station of 
Ajnala. 

" To the right is the church and travellers' rest ; 
to the left the Padre's house and a row of houses 
where live the Christian Pandit"s family and other 
workers. Further on is the bungalow, and be\-ond it 
are the Zenana Compounds. In the tirst is the little 
village home or school for low-caste Christians ; in the 
other are houses for the Hospital workers. A large. 



t8o between life AND DEATH 

airy Hospital bounds one end. The Dispensary comes 
last."_ 

Miss Clay, the pioneer lady Missionary of the 
Punjab Village Mission, initiated the Medical work 
very many years ago, and in 1890, in order to meet 
the demand for treating critical cases which could 
not be properly cared for as out-patients, she 
founded the Emmanuel Hospital, holding twelve beds, 
and erected at a cost of Rs.3,000, contributed by friends 
of the work. The building consists of two wards, of 
which the larger is 44ft. by i6ft. ; a surgery, and five 
little houses for nurses and converts. These, together 
with storehouses and kitchen, two rooms for resident 
workers, the Dispensary (built some years before and 
largely attended), &c., surround a large, open court- 
yard, where the patients can have plenty of fresh air 
without the fear of being seen by a man. 

Miss Hetherington, who was the first to take 
charge, wrote enthusiastically of " our beautiful new 
Hospital." 

" It is not at all like St. Thomas' or any great 
London Hospital, but, as nearly as it is possible to 
make it, like the original Mildmay Hospital in Bethnal 
Green. The walls are hung with nine large R.T.S. 
coloured pictures." 

Pra^-ers were conducted tv/ice a da}', and the 
faithful Bible-woman, Rebecca, would explain one of 
the pictures or teach the patients each e\'ening. The 
out-patients were seen between 12 and 5 p.m. in the 
cold weather, and from 7 to g a.m., and again from 
4.30 to 9 p.m. in the hot months. Medical visits and 
Dispensary work at this time were being carried on by 
Miss Basu, a trained Indian worker from St. 
Catherine's. 

Altogether, when the Hospital was opened, as many 
as 7,456 patients were being treated, either at the 
Ajnala and Jasterwal Dispensaries, in their own homes, 
or in the little Home of Healin<r itself — a larjre total for 



/ WAS SICK i8i 

twelve months ! — and man}' testimonies to awakened 
spiritual interest began to be received. 

The work has gone on in spite of many drawbacks, 
in the loss and transfer of workers, the need of a fully 
qualified doctor, and scanty funds. The Medical 
Report for the year igoo shows that 183 in-patients 
were received, of whom 74 were cured and 57 were 
relieved, while no fewer than 11,000 out-patients and 
camp patients had been prescribed for, of whom up- 
wards of 2,200 were new-comers. 

Miss Basu tells the following interesting story of 
one of the women recently received : — 

" xAbout the end of last winter a Mahommedan 
woman of good position came to us. She had been a long- 
neglected wife, the husband having married another. 
Nearly all the winter she came regularh- as an out- 
patient, always coming for every little complaint, and 
alwa}s staying as long as she could, never caring to 
come into the consulting-room in her turn. No one 
took much notice of this at the time, for all knew that 
she had not the same household duties to perform as 
the other women had, who were always trying to 
get in as fast as they could so as to go back to 
their homes quickly. Whenever she ^^•as not satisfied 
with the Bible-woman's teaching she would slip into the 
ward and ask the head nurse to tell her about salvation. 
The head nurse is a very true Christian and \ery 
anxious to save souls. None of them knew of this 
woman's intentions. Only a few days before leaving 
her home she let us know that she meant to come 
away. She was seriously told to count the cost before 
taking any steps. One midnight she managed to 
leave her village and get to the Hospital. That night 
accidently a door in the ward was not bolted, and it 
was that door she came to and pushed it open. In the 
morning she told us that all the way she was praying 
that she may find a quick entrance into the place. 

" The nurses were \er}- glad to receive her, but very 



t82 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



frif^htened as to what the Miss Sahibas would say at 
their carelessness, as a thief might have walked in. 
However, the next mornin<^-, being assured that God 
over-rules all for good, yet warned to be careful in 
future, they were not a little comforted. 

" Her friends have given us some trouble, and now 




Emmanuel Hospital, Ajnala. 

and then we thought she mi_jht become unstead}' and 
go back, but she remained steadfast, was prepared for 
baptism, and on Easter Sunda}-, igoo, recei\"ed the 
holy rite." 

Occasionally the simple Punjabi folk to whom their 
farmstock is so precious, do not hesitate to seek 
medical ad\ice at the Mission Dispensary for their 
cattle. 

" The name of one patient," says a Missionary-in- 
chargc, " was not entered on our books, and, therefore, 
was not included in our statistics, viz., a baby buffalo ! 
His anxious owner was made quite happy with a pre- 
scription paper, as well as the remedy, but she could not 
see w^hy his name and address should not be written 
down." 



/ WAS SICK 



i8- 



Although so much relief has been g-i\'en, we must 
emphasise, in passing, the urgent need that exists 
at this station, as at many others, for a fully-quaHfied 
doctor. Serious surgical cases have repeatedly to be 
sent away sadly and reluctantly by the workers in 
charge. 

Miss Dixie, at the close of her first year in India 
started a little Dispensary for the women and children 
of Batala, a town with a population of about 30,000, 
the centre of a large and thickh'-populated district in 
the Panjab. Medical Mission wcrk was begun in a 
building rented from Sayyad Muhammad Ali Shah, 
vice president of the Municipal Committee. In these 




The Star Hospital, Batala. 

quarters the number of patients treated increased from 
4,000 in i88g, to 14,000 in ten months of 1895. 

In 1890 the workers wrote home, " It is almost 
impossible to keep pace with the amount of work forced 
upon us."' The people generally were very grateful for 
the benefit they received at the Star Dispensary — so 



t84 between LIEE AND DEATH 

called by the beloved A.'L.O.E. Two years later 
19,000 patients in all had received treatment. No 
wonder Miss Dixie should say, "With only one mis- 
sionary and assistant* to carry on the medical work of 
a city of 27,000 inhabitants, and 200 surrounding 
villages, should one of the two be absent from any 
cause it is very hard for the one left alone. We need 
a Medical Missionary in Batala. We much need a 
small Hospital and Dispensary of our own in place of 
the very small building which we now rent." 

This definite and pressing want was continually 
brought by the workers before God in prayer, and soon 
funds came in. The heathen and Mahommedan 
inhabitants of Batala became so anxious that there 
should be an established Medical Mission, that they 
themselves came forward to help. This, in fact, was 
the only hospital of the kind in a town of 27,000, and a 
district of 300,000 people. Lala Gauda Mai, a Hindu 
gentleman, and owner of the chief local iron foundry, 
spontaneously presented half of the large piece of 
ground, two acres, proposed as the site of the new 
Zenana Hospital, and the gentry, officials, and trades- 
men of the town, headed by the Deputy Commissioner, 
collected amongst themselves enough money to buy 
the remaining half of the site. At a meeting in the 
Municipal Buildings a hearty testimoii}' to the useful- 
ness of the Hospital was borne by native speakers, and 
to quote from a leading Panjabi paper of that date. 
" The land is practically a gift from the citizens of Batala, 
in response to the benefits conferred on them by the 
Zenana Medical Mission." 

The building was speedily started, under the 
careful supervision, first of the Rev. T. E. Coverdale, 
and then of the Rev. E. Corfield ; and on the i6th of 
November, 1895, the opening of the new Dispensary 
took place, the corner-stone of which had been laid by 
*Miss Singha who gave many years valuable and honorary 
assistance to the Missionary in charge. 



/ WAS SICK 185 

^Irs. Wigram, in January, 1893. Archdeacon Spens, 
as representing the Bishop of Lahore, solemnly 
declared the Dispensary open in the Name of the 
Holy Trinity for the service of Christ's sick ! 

The building, which stands just within one of the 
city gates, is made of brick, pakka below, and kachcha 
pakka on the upper storey. It consists of a long 
narrow block with six rooms in a row. The lower 
ones form the out-patient department, operating room, 
and a large room that can be used as a ward ; and the 
upper rooms are for the doctor, assistant, and two 
Indian helpers. A separate building in the compound, 
about twenty yards off, is called the A.L.O.E. 
Ward, because the money was collected as a 
Memorial to Miss Tucker; and here the in-patients 
are received. At present, only one of the two rooms 
into which it is divided is used. There are nine beds 
nearly alwa}-s full. 

English iron spring bedsteads are used ; while 
mattresses stuffed with cotton wool, sheets, and 
blankets form the bedding. But the patients often 
prefer the native charpaie, made of bamboo and woven 
string, and some of these are placed in the verandah 
or in the open air. 

Two nurses, one Christian and one Mahommedan, 
and two old women to act as " ward maids," are at 
present the staff which Dr. Maria Sharp (who, as an 
honorary Missionary, went out in 1897) ^^^ under 
her. The nurses are sensible and satisfactory in their 
duties. 

The patients' ordinary diet consists oi chupattics, ddl, 
rice, and vegetables ; their special diet, milk, sago, rice 
and. if Mahommedans, soup — refused, of course, by 
Hindus. Those who can afford it provide their own 
food : those who are too poor, are provided with it by 
the Hospital. 

Altb.ough the general complaints are those most 
often dealt with, there have been many cases 



i86 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



peculiarly interesting to a surgeon. Not long ago, a 
girl of thirteen came in with a compound commin- 
uted fracture of the elbow joint, and a great deal of 
bleeding. She had fallen from a tree. It was a some- 
what anxious case, but the treatment resulted in 
securing to the patient a fairly good movement in the 




Miss Maria Sharp, M.D. Brux., L.S.A. 



joint. Another satisfactory recent case where a large 
papilloma growing on the skin, was remo\ed success- 
fully. " It was a very simple proceeding," says Dr. 
Sharp, " but the old woman was profuse m her 
expressions of gratitude. I never came into the ward 
without having blessings invoked on my head." 

The women here, as elsewhere, as a rule, exhibit 
great fear of operations and refuse them however 
simple, and even if they extend no further than hot 
fomentation. One morning, a patient presented her- 



/ WAS SICK I §7 

self with an abscess that required incision, but as she 
was evidently terribly frightened, the doctor decided 
merely to put on a hot fomentation and gain her 
confidence first. But while the application was being 
made, the poor woman implored the " operator" to let 
her go ; and when a safety-pin was about to be fixed, 
her terror reached its climax, and she cried, "Take 
my earring, spare my life, and let me go ! " Needless 
to say, she never came again to the Dispensary ! 
Yet there are some who are exceedingly brave in 
bearing pain. 

The patients in the Star Dispensary, as we have 
noticed in other Mission Hospitals, are surprised 
beyond measure at the sanitar}- regulations, and it is 
onl}- after a time that they grow accustomed to them 
and fully appreciate them. 

The power and efficacy of the Christians' prayers 
strikes them greatly and attracts them to the worship 
of a living God, Who, unlike their idols, whom they 
have sought in vain, hears and answers their cry. 
After a time, they do not like to take their food until 
grace has been said. 

The doctor's day begins early. She goes her round 
of the Hospital, takes the nurses' report, and pre- 
scribes for the in-patients. Then comes the out- 
patient work and minor operations, major operations 
being put off, if possible, until Saturday. In the 
afternoon she again goes round the Hospital ; takes 
notes of new cases ; teaches the nurses (twice a week) ; 
reads up cases ; fills m the many statistics which 
Government requires when a grant is givtn ; studies 
the language, speaks to the in-patients, and takes some 
out-of-door exercise. On Sunday, the doctor gives her 
assistants a special Bible lesson, and a service with 
hymn-singing is held for the patients. 

And so, amid many tokens of spiritual blessing, this 
small Home of Healing stands — the only properly 
equipped women's Hospital in the great district of 



i88 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Gurdaspur with its million inhabitants, half of whom 
are women and girls. May God's blessing ever be 
upon it, making it a potent agency for the healing of 
countless souls and bodies ! 

Jandiala is a small town, eleven miles from Amritsar, 
famous for its Sikh Guru's temple. It looks a fine city 
from the high road. Tall, graceful temples stand out 
white against the cloudless blue sky, and large pakka 
buildings with turrets and balconies cluster round 
them. But these striking features are lost upon the 
traveller as he passes along the narrow streets where 
two can hardly walk abreast. 

As long ago as 1883 something on Medical Mission 
lines was attempted by our Missionar}', Miss Parslee, 
at Jandiala. First the " drawing-room " and then a 
" dressing room " of the Mission House was requisi- 
tioned as a Dispensary, the latter ha\ing a small 
verandah in which the patients could sit. 

"' We were very poor," \\rites one of the early 
workers, "and could not afford to have proper shelves 
made, so we broke up the boxes that came out with 
Christmas presents from the Manor House, and nailed 
them up instead. We used to make all our own tinc- 
tures, ointments, pills, (S:c. About twenty patients 
came daih'. If any were very ill, we would put them 
into a room in the compound which just held two bed- 
steads." 

From such a small beginning a great work has 
grown. In 1893 funds came in for the building of 
a small Hospital, in the erection of which the late Rev. 
H. Francis Wright took the keenest interest by 
advancing funds, and giving most valuable help by 
personally superintending the workmen. The founda- 
tion stone was laid by Miss Clay in May, 1893 , but 
the building was not completed till some months 
after our kind friend, Mr. Wright, had been called 
Home. The little Hospital, appropriately named " The 
Henry Francis Wright Memorial,'" was opened by 



7 WAS SICK 189 

Miss Wright on December i8th, 1894, amid much 
thanksgivang and prayer. 

The Jandiala Hospital is a detached, isolated 
building, situated in a corner of the Mission com- 
pound, within easy reach of the people, but far away 
from the unwholesome air of the city. It is a one- 
storeyed building, arranged in blocks around a court- 
yard. The main building is pakka, i.e., built of properly 
made bricks and mortar. The remainder is kachcha 
pakha, i.e., the outer bricks are good, while the inner 
ones are of an inferior qualit}-, and sand is used 
instead of mortar. 

The Hospital proper consists of a ward for in- 
patients, an operating room, a Dispensary for out- 
patients, and a matron's room. It is so constructed 
that two rooms, with their verandahs, run at right 
angles to the other two, in order that the freest air and 
the greatest light may be obtained. Another set of 
buildings on the other side of the courtyard consists of 
the nurses' room, a maternity ward, store rooms, &c. 
The kitchen is a detached building standing on a third 
side of the courtyard. 

The general ward is an oblong room, supposed to 
contain only ten beds, but often obliged to admit more. 
The lime-washed walls look bright with pictures, texts, 
and framed ornamental cards over the beds containing 
the names of the supporters. The furniture is reduced 
to a minimum, consisting of only a bedstead and medi- 
cine shelf for each patient, a few low stools, and two or 
three mats. The bedstead is a wooden frame, across 
which broad nawnr (tape) is plaited. Mattresses are 
discarded, and in their place are spread dhurris, i.e., 
small cotton lioor-cloths or carpets. Sheets, blankets, 
and pillows are used, while bright-coloured patchwork 
" text " quilts make beds and ward look gay and 
inviting. 

A patient's ordinary diet is as follows : — For chhota 
Jiazii'i, i.e., suaall breakfast, a roti and a cup of milk. A 



I90 BETWHEX LIEE AND DEATH 

roti is a large pancake about the size of a plate, made 
of wheaten flour. For haziri, i.e., breakfast, two rotis 
and ddl, or vegetable curry. For khana, i.e., dinner, 
rice and curry. 

No difficulties have arisen through having different 
castes in the Hospital. Care is taken to ensure that 
the Hindus have separate drinking vessels, and to see 
that none but Hindus touch the food vessels. Their 
food is ordered from a Hindu servant, who has it 
cooked in his own house and brought to them by one 
of his female relatives. 

Prayers are taken twice a day in the ward. Miss 
Lacey, an assistant surgeon from the Madras Univer- 
sity, is in charge, and it will be seen that her hands are 
full when 170 patients are received into the Hospital in 
the year, while about g,ooo out-patients attend the two 
Dispensaries, and ninety are seen in their homes. 
Some cases especially interesting from a medical point 
of view that have been successfully treated in this 
little Home of Healing are the following : — 

A girl, about twenty years of age, with cur\-ature of 
the spine, bent double, is now able to walk and to 
resume her household duties. Another case was that 
of complete tetanus; the whole of the muscles of the 
trunk, abdomen, and chest were perfectly rigid, jaws 
firmly fixed, with teeth only about an eighth of an inch 
apart, and suffering excessive pain. A case of hysteria, 
in which, whenever the patient lay down, she would 
become rigid and unconscious, and would not respond 
to any kind of stimulation until put in a sitting posture ; 
and another of hysterical aphonia — " a fasting girl" — 
who lay with clenched teeth, refusing for days to talk 
or eat. 

A very recent case was that of a child with tubal 
nephritis. There was complete anasarca. The face 
was moon-shaped, and so large as to present the 
appearance of goitre. Her limbs were shapeless. She 
was getting on well ; the swellings of face and neck 



/ WAS SICK 191 

were disappearing, and the limbs were becoming 
shapely, when, alas ! the mother's patience failed, and 
she removed the child from the Hospital. She failed 
in even her promise of returning for a supply of 
medicine ! 

Some of the patients have sad stories. Some are 
mere children, under eighteen, but have been married 
for four or five years. 

One such girl was brought in not long ago on 
a manji, i.e., native bedstead, in a wretched condition. 
She could not walk upright, and was only just able to 
crawl. Her muscles were wasted, her legs were 
paralysed, and she was subject to epileptiform convul- 
sions. Her father said that her mother-in-law had ill- 
treated and starved her, and then, finding she was unfit 
for work, had sent her back to him. The old man 
wept when relating the woes of his daughter, and said 
his wife was dead. The girl needed care and nursing, 
and there was no one to give it to her unless she were 
taken into the Hospital. 

Skill and kindness were soon repaid by partial 
recovery, and the poor sufferer, to her intense delight, 
was able to move slowly about on crutches. Her 
gratitude and that of her old father were touching to 
witness, and it was not surprising that when the 
surgeon could assure her patient that she was strong 
enough to leave the Hospital, the girl burst into tears, 
and entreated that she might stay. 

In May, 1900, Miss Lace}- wrote : — " We have a 
Mahommedan convert as matron in the Hospital. She 
takes great delight in telling the story of her conversion 
and in witnessing for Jesus to the women who come to 
the Dispensary." 

The Dispensary belonging to the Hospital opens at 
g.30 a.m. in the winter, and 7 a.m., or even earlier, in 
the hot weather. The patients are taught in the 
verandah by the Hospital matron or a l^ible-woman, 



T92 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

This teachin<:^, accompanied by bhajan-sin^'ing, and 
made attractive by the use of large Scripture pictures, 
is necessarily very simple, but it appeals to the heart. 

If we are surprised that no baptisms have, as yet, 
taken place through the Hospital, it is because we do 
not realize how extremely difficult it is for converts to 
come out from heathenism. If they are baptized, the}' 
must leave their homes, and if they are married, the act 
of baptism makes the marriage null and void, and con- 
sequently they are thrown, helpless and destitute, upon 
their Missionary friends for support. Yet there are 
m.any tokens of definite blessins:. In Behind the Pardah 
we have told of one, Mai Lachmi, who, all her life, had 
been seeking God, and who found spiritual and physical 
healing at the little Dispensary then in charge of a 
valued Indian medical worker, Mrs. Pathinkar. 

It is a motlev group of women and children that 
assembles, day by da}-, in the court}-ard ; and it is 
amusing to hear old patients singing the praises of 
a favourite drug to the new ones, and telling them 
to ask the Miss Snhiba to give it to them, no matter if 
the complaints be as wide apart as the poles in 
character ! Sometimes it is not easy to keep order, 
especiall}- in the village Dispensary at Kot-Khairan. If 
one woman sees another going off with two or three 
packets, she rushes up to the table and wants to know 
why the other one should be more favoured than she ! 

There is often a very sincere thirsting for God's 
Word manifested, and frequently comes the request, 
during the waiting time, that more bliajaiis should 
be sung to them. 

\"isiting in the homes far distant from the Dispen- 
sary, but whither its fame has spread, is sometimes 
fraught with peculiar pathos and with signal blessing. 
Some time ago an old Hindu village woman lay at the 
point of death. Bending tenderly over her, the Mis- 
sionar\- tried to catch her almost incoherent words. 
The poor old woman grasped the gentle, white hand in 



/ WAS SICK 195 

both of hers and murmured, "Jesus put kindness in your 
heart, and so you came to see me." The Miss Sahiba 
sang and talked for the last time to her of Jesus and His 
love, and occasionally the feeble voice gasped out that 
precious Name, on whom the weary soul was learnmg 
to cast its burden of sin, and so passed from earth 
to Heaven. 

The Mission Station of Narowal W\\\ ever be 
connected with the fragrant memory of a devoted 
C.E.Z. worker now " at home with the Lord," Miss 
Catchpool. Though never directly connected with the 
medical work, she always took a keen interest in it and 
helped it forward by all the means in her power, super- 
intending the building of the present Dispensary and 
Hospital herself. 

Medical work at Narowal began almost simultane- 
ously with the establishment of the Mission Station, 
but in a very small way; Miss Reuther, the Missionary- 
in-charge, at first receiving patients for consultation on 
the verandah of the Mission House. Then a Sikh, who 
became a Christian, w^hen dying bequeathed to Miss 
Catchpool a small native house in the town, and there 
Miss Reuther opened her Dispensary. This tiny 
dwelling, comprising only three or four small rooms, 
was exceedingly roughly built, but in a good situation 
for gaining the confidence of timid Mahommedans and 
Hindus, and thither patients came in crowds. Occa- 
sionally a patient would be received and nursed in one 
of the small rooms. But the little building proved in- 
sanitary and malarial, and in 1893 the workers were 
thankful to move into well-planned and airy premises. 
The new Dispensary, or, as it may now be called, 
Hospital, contained seven rooms, including an out- 
patients' large waiting room, and had a wide com- 
pound or yard. 

The Hospital itself was not built originally for that 
object, but was a building erected by Miss Catchpool 
for her summer Station Class, with one large room for 

o 



194 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

sick Christian women. It is built of sun-dried bricks, 
plastered with mud, and cost only Rs.500 ! There is 
one large ward with four small ones, holding altogether 
fourteen beds. Sometimes, however, on those great 
occasions when the C.M.S. doctor from Amritsar 
comes to perform major operations, as many as twenty 
patients have been accommodated. 

These rooms stand in a courtyard of their own, 
quite separate from the Dispensary courtyard, which 
contains the operating, consulting, drug store rooms, 
and Dispensary, as well as the out-patients' waiting 
room, and three others rooms for the dispenser and 
other helpers. 

The Hospital wards, with their clean, red-brick 
floors, are bright with whitewash, and decorated with 
beautiful Gurmukhi and Hindustani texts (from the 
Daybreak Workers' Painting Union), as well as 
adorned with pictures sent out in the Manor House 
boxes. 

The bedsteads are the native wooden, nawar-strung 
charpaies — the nawar being the product of Miss Jack- 
son's Widows' Industrial Class in Amritsar. The 
bedding consists of a dhurvi, or cotton rug, pillows and 
pillow-cases, a sheet, and one or more blankets, 
according to the time of year. 

Even when strictly ordered to do so, Punjabi 
patients find it very difficult to stay in bed. The}' dis- 
like it immensely, and much prefer to sit in the 
verandah in the winter sun, although in the hot 
weather they are glad enough of the comparatively 
cool shade of the ward. It is not exactly easy to 
nurse such people in English style, for they much 
prefer to follow their own ideas ! 

Miss Reuther, the Missionary-in-charge, has a fully- 
trained medical worker. Miss Ruth Vcrana, and also a 
trained nurse. Miss Annie Sher Singh, under her, both 
from the Ludhiana School of Medicine. They arc true 
Christians, and are very fond of their work. Mrs. 



/ WAS SICK 195 

Maidment, an African, educated in Bombay, has been 
from the beginning of the \vori< a valued helper as 
matron and dispenser; " Ulfat," dresser, and " Bhoh," 
Bible-woman, and a low-caste woman as helper, com- 
plete the present staff, soon to be enlarged, it is hoped, 
by the addition of a much-needed night nurse. 

The patients' ordinary diet is N'er}- simple. Milk, 
chupattis, ddl (a kind of pulse), rice and curry. Meat 
is allowed three times a week, and vegetables are given 
three times also. 

All forms of malarial and skin diseases are most 
common ; ophthalmia, too, brings numbers to the 
little Hospital. 

" Whole villages," says Miss Reuther's co-worker. 
Miss Rainsford, " are often down with infectious skin 
complaints, but any direction to boil infected clothing, 
and to take sulphur baths, are quite useless, nor do the 
people see an\- sense in segregation for small-pox or 
cholera." 

The patients, on being brought into the Hospital, 
are greatly struck with three things — i. The absolute 
truthfulness of those who prescribe for and tend them ; 
2. The real love and interest exhibited towards them; 
and 3. That prayers are offered to God in Punjabi ; 
whereas the Mahommedans pray in Arabic, the 
language of their Quran, and have no idea of the 
meaning of what the}' say. 

Sunday differs frcm an ordinary day, as in other 
Mission Hospitals. The out-patient department is 
closed, and in the afternoon a Bible class is held for 
the patients, who are then taught some of the Hundred 
Texts translated into Punjabi by Miss Wanton, of 
Amritsar. 

Punjabis, Sikhs, Hindus, Sweepers, Pathans, 
Rajputs, and e\'en Kashmiris, become in-patients at 
Xarowal, and as many as seventy-one were received 
within the Hospital walls in 1900, while 14,600 were 
treated through the Dispensary. 



196 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Like most of our Hospitals, its staff is too small to 
be able to keep in touch with old patients, when they 
return to their village homes. But during the spring 
and autumn itinerations, the workers come across old 
patients, and, in such villages, the Missionaries and 
their Message are always welcome. 

Several visitors of note have borne their testimony 
to the value of the little Hospital at Narowal. The 
Deputy-Commissioner, in 1891, remarked, " The Dis- 
pensary is a blessing to the town and to the surround- 
ing villages. The District Board and the Municipal 
Commissioners of Narowal have increased their 
grants in aid of this Dispensary from April ist, i8gi, 
in recognition of the good work being done here." 
And on a subsequent visit in the same year, he wrote in 
the Visitors' Book, " The new Hospital is an excellent 
building, so situated that women can come to it with 
comfort. The work is progressing splendidly." And 
again in 1893, " The ladies have won the love and 
respect of all the people round by their self-denying 
work." 

Sir W. Mackworth Young at this time recorded his 
impressions: — "Everything is in beautiful order. 
The popularity of the Institution is increasing, as 
might be expected, in proportion to the regard which 
the people have for the ladies who are their friends, 
and for the benefits they receive." 

Although at present there have been few baptisms, 
there has been much encouragement in the spiritual 
side of the work, and some definite conversions. A 
young Mahommedan girl patient, who was suffering 
from remittent fever, had been a pupil in the Kotli girls' 
school, and in her conscious moments would repeat 
much of what she had learned there. She showed 
much gratitude and real affection, and on returning 
home, cured, she began to teach in her old school. 

In August, 1899, the Hospital niilitrani (sweeper) 
was baptized, as also Kaum 13ibi, in her bed. This 



/ WAS SICK 



197 



poor patient, some four years previously, came to Miss 
Reuther, creepin^^ from her village, six miles away. 
She was married, but never went to her husband's 
house, owing to paralysis of the legs, and she was un- 
kindly treated on account of her affliction., She had 




Maukar Medical Mission Tent. 



often begged for baptism, but, being of weak intellect, 
and learning with great difficulty, it was hard to know 
if her heart were touched. But for several years she 
remained in the Hospital as cook, and always testified 
to the Master Whom she served, repeating hymns and 
texts to 'the patients at night ; witnessing so clearly 
indeed for Christ that some Mahommedans refused to 
stay in the Hospital because they could see that the 
cook was a Christian. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE KEY IN THE LOCK 

or 

Hospitals and Dispensaries in the Punjab 
and Sindh — //. 

" Ask God to give thee skill 

In comfort's art, 
That thou mayest consecrated be 

And set apart 
Unto a life of sympathy; 
For heavy is the weight of ill 

In e\ery heart, 
And comforters are needed much 

Of Christ-like touch." 

A. E. Hamilton. 

" ¥F we saw no spiritual results, if we saw no doors 

I opened by means of Medical Missions, it would 

I still be the bounden duty of Christian people to 

do what they can with this Western Science which 

God has given to alleviate misery, wretchedness, pain, 

and disease, wherever it may be found." These words, 

spoken by the Right Rev. Bishop Hoare, of Hong 

Kong, will find an echo in every right-thinking person's 

heart. 

But how doubly responsible do we become as 
we recognize that the Christian Missionary doctor 
holds in his or her hand the key that fits exactly 
the lock of the most stubborn, bigoted heart? How 



.200 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

culpable we are if, through selfish ease or indifference, 
we fail in our sacred duty. 

We have seen in the previous chapter how fast- 
closed, doors in the Punjab have swung open at the 




On the River Jhelum, Kashmir. 

touch of this golden key ; and how sore hearts have 
responded to the Christian comforters who came to 
heal their suffering bodies. Now let us look at some 
Homes of Healing in Sindh, whose floors are surely 
consecrated by the tread of the Great Physician's 
footsteps. 

The Duchess of Connaught Hospital is one to 
which peculiar interest attaches. Standing in the 
heart of that fanatical and very oriental city of over 
80,000 souls, Peshawar, it represents a veritable 
fortress for the Lord of Hosts. Peshawar, because of 
its situation on the north-western frontier of India, 
is a thoroughfare for caravans, and consequently all 
nationalities of Central Asia jostle one another, 
bartering and trading in its busy, narrow streets. The 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 201 

secluded women of Peshawar, concealed within large, 
old houses, of whose existence the tourist might be 
utterly unaware, since they are hidden in the heart of 
the city, are in sore need, when illness enters their 
homes — if such they can be called. In 1884, one 
small Dispensary was opened by our workers ; but it 
took some time for prejudice to die down, and for fear 
to be allayed. A medical woman was an undreamt-of 
boon. But gradually and surely their confidence was 
gained. At the end of the first year, 100 cases of 
illness treated in the houses and Dispensary were 
recorded ; but in five years' time, 4,296 patients were 
noted on the register. 

At this time, about ten to one of the patients were 
Afghans from the district or beyond the frontier ; but 
the news of a Medical Mission had penetrated into the 
far distant hills, and people from the wild, moun- 
tainous countries trudged down for miles to visit the 
ladies. Afridi women from the Khyber Pass in ragged 
petticoats were smile-provoking in their quaint 
costumes. Alwa3's in one fashion, these are invari- 
ably dressed in a coarse, dark blue material, sometimes 
striped with red. The bodice of the dress is a yoke 
to which se\'eral }-ards of cloth are tightly gathered, 
and this heavy, uncomfortable garment reaches to the 
ankles, and would certainly be, to European ideas to 
say the least, unfitted for hill climbing or athletic 
exercise ! They never change their clothes, not even 
in the hottest weather, nor do they buy new material. 
It is said that on their wedding day they receive a 
garment, and this is patched and patched as time goes 
on, but never laid aside. They wear thick straw 
sandals, and a piece of dark blue cloth about four 
yards long, with variegated border, which is sometimes 
worn as a chaddar, sometimes carried as a bundle 
on the top of the head. 

After a time, a very notable breaking-down of 
prejudice took place. The women began to lose faith 



202 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

in their hcikUns, and would say, "They only want our 
money — they do not care what happens to us." It 
was far more difficult to overcome their superstitious 
belief in the efficacy of the faqirs' intercessions and 
charms. In one instance, the faqir himself was con- 
vinced of the benefit of European treatment, and told 
a poor woman who had been ill for four years to 
leave Terah, a country beyond the frontier, and to 
visit us. 

He said, "I will pray for you, but go to them and 
they will cure you." He probably received a fee for 
his prayers, while the Missionaries cured the case 
gratuitously ! 

The little Hospital, opened in 1886, and which 
was in reality only a few adapted store-rooms, was 
merely an experiment to see if anything so new, so 
Christian, would be tolerated in such a bigoted place. 
Several inmates during the first year left from fright 
at the rumour that all who lay in English beds with 
English clothing must perforce become Christians ! 
One patient became so alarmed that within a few 
hours of her admission she jumped from her bed and 
tried to escape into the city in her nightdress ! 
Ijut from the beginning the success of the Hospital 
was assured. The number of beds soon had to 
be doubled, and new rooms had to be built. In 1888 
Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Connaught, who 
had visited the Medical Mission at its inception, and 
who had graciousl}- consented to become Patroness of 
it, gave permission that the Hospital should be called 
by her name. Early in i8go a site was chosen for 
erecting a permanent, more suitable, and larger build- 
ing, to accommodate the rapidly growing work. The 
spot chosen was a large square at the back of the 
Gurkhatri, surrounded by small grain -merchants' 
shops, and which, much to the discomfort of the 
Missionaries, appeared to be the rendezvous of all 
the stray pariah dogs of the neighbourhood. Often, 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 203 

too, the square was packed with camels, and then the 
noise and odour became unbearable. 

The foundation-stone of the new Hospital was laid 
in April, 1894, by Mrs. (now Lady) Udney, wife of the 
Commissioner of Peshawar, in the presence of a large 
number of natives and Europeans, and at the ceremony 
addresses were given, carefully explaining the spiritual 
as well as temporal aims of the institution. 

The building was reared slowly; the inevitable 
dilatoriness of the Indian workm.en having to be 
firmly dealt with, and patiently overcome by Miss 
Werthmuller, then in charge ; and on October 28th, 
1895, the opening service took place. Miss E. L. 
Mitcheson, who had before superintended the Medical 
Mission, had just returned from England, whither she 
had gone in order to gain a full medical diploma, so 
indispensable to the needs of the work. The building, 
the outcome of much prayer, was solemnly dedicated 
to God, and thrown open to tne suffering women of 
Peshawar. Yet the Enemy of Souls had been 
successful in rousinj^ the populace to a bitter feeling of 
antagonism. The leading Hindus and Mahommedans 
ignored the invitations to the opening ceremony; and 
one of them wrote a manifesto which was industriously 
distributed at the door of the Hospital whilst the 
service was proceeding. That portion of the city 
immediately surrounding the Hospital is inhabited 
almost entirely by people of the lower class ; but 
within a short radius are man\- streets filled with 
residences of wealthy Persian and Afghan families. 
Exactly opposite the Hospital entrance is the 
Gurkhatri Square, in which stands the C.E.Z.M.S. 
ladies' house, a Government guest-house, ike, &c. 

The Hospital is built in four blocks, including the 
nurses' quarters, the enclosed grounds forming an 
irregular quadrangle. The front wall runs parallel 
with the main road, and in the centre of it is the large 
entrance gateway, guarded night and day by a 



204 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



watchman. That part of the wall to the right of the 
gate is broken by a small tumble-down Mahommedan 
mosque and well, which, when the Hospital site was 
purchased, had fallen in disuse. An endeavour to 




The Duchess of Connaught Hospital, Peshavrar, 

purchase it met, not only with a refusal, but the waning 
energy of the priest suddenly re\"ived, and the cal to 
prayer have been loud and regular ever since. 

As the front gate is entered, to the right is the Dis- 
pensary block containing six rooms. The Dispensary 
itself is a large, airy room with plenty of convenient 
shelves and cupboards, with glass doors. One special 
feature is the large, cleverly constructed table 
(designed by Miss Werthmiiller), containing drawers, 
cupboards, and sliding shelves — the admiration of all 
"medicals" who ha\-e seen it. W'ater is laid on here 
as throughout these model Medical Mission premises. 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 205 

A door leads from the Dispensary into the consult- 
ing room, where one of the doctors sits each morning 
treating out-patients gathered in the verandah, and 
where the Gospel invitation is proclaimed to them in 
one of the many tongues spoken — Persian, Urdu, 
Pashtu, or Panjabi, according to the nationality of the 
hearers. Often these addresses have to be given in 
succession in as many languages. 

The Dispensary door is opentd at 9 a.m. in the 
cold season, and about 6 a.m. in the hot months, and 
is closed three hours afterwards. The Dispensary 
nurse is in attendance all the morning, but all the 
nurses in turn have to learn something of Dispen- 
sary work. 

About 2,500 new cases are treated here each year, 
and at least 3,500 old patients' names are at the same 
time on the books. For the first four months of igoi, 
3,243 visits of old and new patients had been made. 

Here it may be noted in passing as an instance of 
the way in which the various branches of C.E.Z. work 
interweave, that one nurse was trained at St. 
Catherine's Hospital, Amritsar, and another by Miss 
Reuther, at Narowal. 

Leading out from the consulting room is an 
examination room for gynaecological cases, where 
also minor operations, dressings, &c., are performed. 
Doors open also into the verandah for the entrance 
and exit of patients, and into the ophthalmic "dark 
room " — a portion of a room screened off being thus 
termed in compliment. The surgical dressing-room, 
with its necessary large boiler, Hinndni, containing hot 
water, is another annexe of the consulting room, and 
this completes the block. Every floor, as in the 
Hospital, is of slate, which is daily cleaned. 

On either side of the entrance gateway small 
room.s, used for a variety of purposes, are built. Two 
of these are the watchman's room and a waiting room, 
in which patients who are well enough may have 



2o6 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

interviews with their relatives, and which is sometimes 
used as a room to which a dying patient may be 
removed, so that men relatives may visit her. A 
pretty trellis work shuts off the nurses' room from the 
entrance, and also from the Hospital grounds. They 
have a wide verandah to keep them cool, but are far 
too small to contain two people in each as at present. 
Plans have been drawn up to build much-needed new 
quarters, while the old rooms will be used as isolation 
wards ; ver}' necessar}- adjuncts to every hospital, as all 
experts will agree. 

Turning now to the Hospital proper, we notice 
there are seven wards, four of which are small, for 
private cases. There are, altogether, thirt}-seven beds 
and two cots for children. 

The first ward that we enter, the large, general 
ward, is named "Barwise," in memory of the late 
Mrs. Barwise. It is rendered cool on the hottest day 
by wide verandahs, which run almost the whole length 
of the building, and connect four smaller, two-bedded 
rooms at the corners. The central ward boasts of 
twenty-one beds, and very bright and clean they look, 
with their navy blue and scarlet bordered quilts, lined 
with white. Linings have been perforce adopted in 
place of upper sheets, since the patients would insist 
upon taking the sheets off and winding them in cliaddar 
fashion round their heads ! Although there are no 
mattresses, the iron bedsteads are rendered very elastic 
and comfortable by a double broad cotton braid, naivar 
(a nati\-e-made webbing), and a thick rug placed upon 
it. xA. mackintosh sheet, covered b}- an ordinary sheet, 
completes the bed; while over blankets are used instead 
the less satisfactory resai, or cotton wool (luilt, as used of 
by the natives. 

The four small wards are kept for special cases, 
such as pneumonia, cataracts, or, sometimes, for 
Hindus who object to be in the same ward with 
Mohammedans. All the beds but one in these 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 207 

wards are supported by special friends or groups of 
friends. 

The " Laurence " Maternity Ward is in a separate 
block on the left of the "Barwise," and it is interesting 
to learn that this ward was built by the sons and 
daughters of Sir George Laurence, in memory of their 
mother. As one realizes the enormous boon and bless- 
ing, temporal and spiritual, conferred on hundreds 
by this beautiful memorial, one marvels that so much 
is spent by Christian mourners on costly blocks of 
marble and granite to mark the spot where only what 
is mortal of their loved ones lies, and that so little 
is spent instead in raising monuments that will live 
through eternity. 

The Barwise and Laurence beautiful example was 
again repeated in the case of a smaller In Memoriam 
— the " Clare " Ward, which is used for a variety of 
purposes. On one notable occasion a whole Hindu 
family, exclusive of the men, of good position, occupied 
it, undertaking to do their own cooking. The daughter 
had lost her first baby-boy, through the maltreatment 
of a native date, and on the next occasion she, her 
mother, sister, and two servants came in a fortnight 
beforehand. 

Space fails us to describe the operating room, and 
the Laparotomy ward, with their purposely rounded-off 
corners, walls smoothed with Portland cement, and 
painted with petrifying fluid, and their basin slabs of 
Nowshera marble so as to ensure the best aseptic con- 
ditions for the serious cases dealt with in them. 
\\'e can only notice with admiration in passing the 
large, tin-lined case, a receptacle for the patients' 
clothing, after the preliminary bath on admission. 
Peep in — if you care to do so ! — and you will see 
bundles of quaint and fearsome-looking costumes, tied 
up and carefully labelled, awaiting their owners' happy 
egress from hospital. It is easy to believe that the 
patients are hardly recognizable after they have had a 



2o8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

bath and have exchanged their own dirty garments for 
the pretty Hospital kurtas and pyjamas, and nice, white 
chaddars. 

We have not time to visit the cool, dark, under- 
ground drug-store, nor to watch the cook preparing 
the daily food ; but it will be interesting to find out the 
patients' ordinary diet. It is good, but simple, native 
food. Meat, cooked with vegetables, is given once 
a day, and, in addition, a bowl of bread and milk 
twice a day. The bread is the chupaiti — a flat cake 
made of flour, and ddl, a kind of pulse resembling 
lentils in flavour, which is both nourishing and 
easily digested, is given also every day. Milk has to be 
given with discretion, since the people are so little 
accustomed to such a luxury ; and it must be remem- 
bered that the above inenii^ is allowed only to those 
cases where special diet is not required. 

Nearly all the nurses in this Hospital have been 
trained by the Hospital workers themselves ; the chief 
native Christian assistant is most reliable, and, indeed, 
all the helpers are those who have responded well 
to the teaching and training. Of the value of Indian 
fellow workers we have spoken elsewhere. 

Our workers in this model Hospital have had many 
cases, in their practice, extremely interesting from the 
doctor's point of view, but generally of a character that 
cannot be described in these pages; yet it is just cases 
of this kind that point to the urgent need of medical 
ladies. 

Two or three of the operations treated successfully 
deserve a brief mention. Quite recenth', a child of six 
with double infantile cataract was brought to Dr. 
Mitcheson for treatment. She had never seen at all, 
but after the first operation on each eye, her sight ^\■as 
partially restored, and when the secondary operation 
was performed, she could see perfectly well. 

Shortly after this little one's restoration, a Hindu 
baby girl, with fracture of two bones of the right leg. 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 



209 



was brought for treatment. The grandfather, a 
weahhy Hindu, was strongly advised to leave her 
in the Hospital, but firmly refused. Just at this 
moment a poor Mahommedan passed by the entrance, 
and, on hearing the discussion, approached unasked 
and said, " Leave your child with them ; they are good 
people and will cure her. My little girl was born 
blind, and now she can see." This testimony had the 




The Duchess of Connaught Hospital Staff, Peshavrar. 

desired effect, and the baby was left, soon to recover by 
God's blessing on skilful treatment. 

Another patient cured by operation was the wife of 
a Kamber Khal chief, for six years unable to walk from 
contraction of the tendons in the leg. This case was 
peculiarly interesting, as the chief was one of those 
who, by Government order, had come down to be 
interviewed b}^ Sir William Lockhart and Sir Frederick 
Cunningham. They were told to send in their stipula- 
tions, and the last of these was to the effect that their 
women and Mahommedan women in general might 

V 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



not be sent, or allowed to go, to the Mission Hospital, 
Peshawar !* 

Another interesting case, from a surgical point of 
view, was that of a poor woman from Dir, beyond the 
frontier, whose nose had been cut off by one of the 
___ chiefs, whom she had offended 

by running away from his 
Zenana 

Another poor woman, the 
instigator of her flight and 
who fled with her, suffered 
yet more, for her upper lip 
was cut away with the nose! 
The cruelty of these people 
is beyond description. 

" The new nose, made 
from the tissue of the fore- 
head, proved quite a success, 
we are thankful to sa}^" says 
Dr. Eleanor Mitcheson, " as 
this was my first operation 
of the kind." 

Accidental injuries are frequently brought to the 
Hospital, and God has been pleased to work, through 
His handmaidens, some really remarkable cures. A 
poor woman, tossed by a bull, came in with fearfully 
torn lips, and other worse injuries, unable to eat or 
drink except in a recumbent position, and suffering un- 
told misery. In her case complete recovery took place 
under the skilful surgical treatment received. 

As a rule, the patients submit very readily to opera- 
tions, and shew considerable courage and endurance 
under pain. Dr. Charlotte Wheeler, who during Dr. 
Mitcheson's absence, in 1892, took charge of the 
Hospital, wrote to friends at home as follows : — " I 
wish I could bring before all those who read this our 

*Thc reply given was, " They are not sent ; they may please 
themselves." 




Miss Charlotte Wheeler, 'L.S.!^., 
L.R.C.P. & S., Ed„ M.D., Brux. 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 211 

Afghan women in their daily life in the Hospital — their 
childlike, affectionate, grateful natures, their dread of 
pain coupled with wonderful fortitude when they have 
actually to bear it, their sunny dispositions, and their 
thorough enjoyment of a hearty laugh. It may be 
breaking through all the traditions of Dr. Blue Pill to 
say so, but a laugh often does more good than a dose 
of medicine ! In our Hospital we combine the two, 
and doctor, nurse, and patients have many a merry 
time together, thus breaking down the high walls of 
racial instinct which might otherwise prove a hindrance 
in winning the hearts of these women." 

The care and gentleness bestowed, and the skill 
with which suffering is relieved, create a great impres- 
sion on them. An exclamation often heard is, "Even 
our own mothers would not do so and so." The 
Afghans and Mahommedans in general ^^ill evince 
their gratitude months afterwards by bringing gifts 
of eggs to the doctors, and the Hindus, not to be 
outdone, bring baskets of fruit or sweetmeats. The 
eggs are forthwith given to the Matron for Hospital 
use, while the Hindu offerings are distributed among 
the nurses, who greatly appreciate them. 

And what of the spiritual results ? What are the 
signs following the Word spoken ? Of course, there 
are endless opportunities of telling the patients of 
Christ, and God has richly blessed the work among the 
suffering women of Peshawar and the trans-border 
tribes. Incident after incident might be related to 
show that the twofold healing — the high aim of this 
true Mission Hospital — has been attained, but one or 
two must suffice. 

The patients stay for very varying periods of time ; 
some remaining month after month, for it must be re- 
membered that a Mission Hospital differs from a 
general one, since the soul, as well as the bod}', is cared 
for. When a patient wishes to stay, if possible, she is 
allowed to remain much longer than if mere bodily 



212 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

healing were considered Often the women and girls 
will declare they want to live altogether and alwa3S in 
the Hospital, and will even invent excuses for extension 
of treatment ! One pathetic incident of attachment to 
the Christian Hospital is worth recording. 

An occupant of the " Montreux " bed, far advanced 
in consumption, was advised to return to her home as 
incurable, and did so. But one morning, not long 
after, a poor woman crawled into the consulting room, 
and there, through sheer weakness, sank upon the 
floor, saying, " I have come here to die — take me in." 
It was the old patient come back again ! She was 
tenderly taken up and carried to her bed. It was soon 
apparent that her hours were numbered, and she was 
asked if her relatives should be summoned. " I have 
no one," she replied, and then, looking up pathetically 
into the doctor's face, she added, " I belong to you." 
Again she was lovingly and clearly pointed to the 
Saviour, and ere, early next morning, she passed away, 
she gave calm assent to the question, " Do you believe 
in Christ as your Saviour ? " There can be little 
doubt that she will be found in that Great Day among 
the redeemed throng. 

On another occasion the baptism of a Pathan girl 
was the cause of much thanksgiving and joy. At her 
own request she was baptized by the native pastor, 
Padri Imam Shah, in a small private ward, whither 
she was moved. It was a beautiful and solemn little 
service, witnessed by the Christian doctors and nurses. 
Very soon afterwards the Home Call came. 

A sketch of a doctor's " da}'" in the Hospital will 
show that a Medical Missionary's practice is no sine- 
cure. Supposing that only one fully qualified lady is 
in charge; she rises at 5 a.m., conducts prayers in 
Urdu at 6 o'clock, begins her ward visiting at 6,30, 
and then goes into the dispensary at about 7 a.m. 
She will find that, on an average, there are forty-two 
patients to be seen, and so, if she allots a bare five 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 213 

minutes to each one, three and a half hours' steady 
work are before her. But the majority of cases 
require longer examination than can be given in so 
short a time ; and minor operations also have to be 
performed. It is not surprising, then, that the good 
doctor is often obliged to defer her 11 o'clock break- 
fast to a late hour. From 12 to 3 o'clock, 
during the hot season, it is absolutely necessary 
to rest ; but very often this is partially fore- 
gone when operations have to be performed. 
At 3.30 p.m. tea and poached egg or pudding are a 
welcome light refreshment, after which visits have to 
to be paid to patients at their homes. Dinner comes 
at 7 p.m. and then the doctor makes her nightly 
rounds of the wards. 

It will readily be seen how necessary it is that 
more than one doctor should be upon the staff, since, 
not only the above-mentioned medical work has to be 
carried on, but, side by side with it, the spiritual 
responsibilities upon which we have not yet dwelt. 
Individual dealing with souls, the taking of Bible- 
classes for servants and nurses, and Bible teaching in 
the wards mean a continual exhausting strain, such as 
can only be met by the enabling power ot God's Holy 
Spirit w^orking through a sound and strong body. 
Happily, the C.E.Z.M.S. has been able to appoint a 
fully-qualified fellow-worker to the Missionary-in- 
Charge, but yet a third is wanted, so that during the 
cold season two could work in the city and one be out 
in the district, changing their posts in order to relieve 
one another and to prevent the oppressive loneliness 
which must be felt by the isolated European prac- 
titioner who, for a fortnight at a time, sees no one 
to whom, she can speak a word of English. 

We cannot close this sketch of the Peshawar Hos- 
pital and its agencies without quoting from a letter 
written by Dr. Hoist, who for two years has been 
located at the " Duchess of Connaught "' assisting Dr. 



2 14 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Mitcheson and learning the language, or, rather, we 
should say, languages. 

" I love my work. God gives the Medical Mis- 
sionary many a chance which is denied to other 
workers. . . The other day I was allowed to save a 
patient's life. The next day sixteen women listened 
to the Gospel message which Elizabeth Jelaludin (our 
chief assistant) gave in Pushtu on St. Matt. xi. 28. 
They had never heard before. Was not that a 
privilege ? " 

And, again, this 3-oung doctor, at the close of her 
hrst year in India, bears a touching testimony in a 
few graphic words, describing an experience which was 
a severe test of faith and courage. 

"A little while ago I operated on a patient who 
was ver}' ill. She died on the fourth day. I sat 
with her constantly the last two days, and, when she 
died, I felt miserable and almost as if God's Hand were 
taken away from me. In the evening I went round to 
the patients, expecting to find them hard and wishing 
to leave. But, instead, God had touched their hearts, 
and two or three of them put their arms round my 
neck. I felt it to be a token of His love and — though 
such a death cannot be forgotten, for she died without 
Christ — I was comforted a little." 

The difficulty of keeping in touch (except by prayer) 
with old patients who have returned to their homes 
beyond the frontier is ^■er^• great and sadly to be 
deplored. Doors, widely open, have to be left un-entered; 
seed sown remains unwatered by human agency. There 
is a sphere here, aye, and an ur^ott need for a special 
worker who would follow up such cases ; one who could 
learn the three languages, . and, having nothing to do 
with the medical or nursing work, simply spend her 
time among the in- and out-patients, telling them of the 
love of Christ in their own tongue, Who will hear 
God's call personally and reply "Here am I, send me " ? 

The Daudzai Dispensar}-, nine miles from Peshawar 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 215 

\vas opened in 1889, in a very bigoted village called 
Narkai. It is visited once a week, and, when possible 
in the cold season, a lady doctor from the Hospital 
spends a whole day there so as to visit patients in their 
homes. By degrees the women are gaining confidence 
although the rumour was set afloat that this was 
another trap to catch the women and force them to 
become Christians. 

Once a month, if possible, the Missionary physician 
drives out also to a village, Utmanzai, twenty miles 
distant, and spends the night in the house of a young 
Christian woman, the only Christian woman in a 
large Mahommedan district. Generally, soon after 
the doctor's arrival, ladies who dare not venture 
out of doors in the daylight, come to see her, veiled 
in their hnrqqas, and hidden from curious eyes by the 
darkness of the night. Most of these ladies of 
rank are connected by marriage with this Christian 
woman of whom they are very fond. They are most 
bigoted and argumentative, amounting almost to 
rudeness ; but the Gospel message is lovingly put 
before them. 

The next morning the doctor is kept busy indeed 
with out-patients, from early morning till mid-day, at 
Utmanzai, and then wends her way to Daudzai for the 
afternoon, seeing as many as forty sick people in the 
day. 

A Hindu Dispensary greatly needed in the town was 
opened in igoo, but had to be closed for lack of 
workers ! 

Quetta, the most advanced post of our British 
Army in India, is on the borderline between Beluch- 
istan to the south, and Afghanistan to the north. Here, 
in 1895, Miss Shaw was engaged in local connection by 
the Society to start work in conjunction with Mr 
Eustace's C.M.S. ^ledical Mission. She secured such 
favourable openings among the women that in Novem- 
ber of that year, Dr. Charlotte Whealer and Miss D. 



2l6 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



L. White, transferred from Peshawar, were able to 
begin systematic medical work. 

At first a small, inconvenient house was the best 
that could be obtained in which to open a Dispensary ; 
but the need of a Hospital for treating serious cases 
soon began to be severely felt, and, in 1896, two more 
small adjacent houses, a quarter of a mile off, were 
secured, and, by means of plenty of windows and 




Patients arriving at the Good Shepherd Hospital, Quetta. 

whitewash, were transformed into a pleasant little 
Home of Healing to hold fourteen patients and two 
native workers. 

The late Sir James Browne, A.G.G. of Beluchistan, 
was present at the dedication service, and expressed 
his conviction of the great benefits, from a political 
point of view, which Christian Missions thus conferred 
in establishing friendly relations with the frontier 
tribes. 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 217 

The fact that eight languages are spoken by the 
women around adds considerable difficulty to Medical 
Missionary work at Quetta. A visitor to the out- 
patient waiting room might hear talking in eight 
different languages, viz., Sindhi, Punjabi, Gujerati, 
Hindustani, Persian," Beluchi, Pashtu, and Brahui. 
This last tongue is that of a gypsy tribe, who, for the 
most part, live during the summer in tents near the 
villages around, and migrate to the plains of India for 
the winter. Our Missionaries bravely tackled the 
eighth language in 1897. As the language was barely 
reduced to writing, the pupils were very dependent on 
their Miinshi, who, however, had no knowledge of 
grammar. "To ask him for an 'infinitive,' " says Dr. 
Wheeler, " was to put him absolutely beyond his bear- 
ings, but, by dint of much digging, we contrived to 
extract some information from him." 

The Panjabi-speaking women are chiefly Hindus, 
and may be recognized by their loud voices and 
homely accents. They are inhabitants of Quetta. 
Those who speak Hindustani are generally Mahom- 
medans, the wives of clerks in Government employ, or 
of domestic servants. The Persian-speaking women 
are Hazaris, with features of the Mongolian type. 
" Their skin is fair, and their disposition sweet," says 
the doctor, " the liquid Persian tongue seems to suit 
their lovable nature." The Pashtu villagers are all 
Moslems, and may be known by their long green or 
red jackets reaching almost to the ground. The 
Brahuis resemble them in religion and dress, but may 
be singled out by their dark complexions, rather 
oppressed looking faces, and by a total absence of any 
acquaintance with soap and water. Then come the 
Sindhis, who, like the Panjabis, dwell in Quetta itself, 
and are Hindus. They have delicately pale faces, 
wear light coloured skirts, and speak with a nasal 
twang. 

All these are the greatest frequenters of the 



2i8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Dispensary, and therefore it is necessary, in addition 
to training the native assistants, to coach them in at 
least three of the languages. 

Dr. Charlotte Wheeler sketched a day in the 
Quetta Medical Mission for the readers of Daybreak. 
Here is one of the graphic word pictures of the 
Dispensary : — 

" Let us now come into the tiny consulting room, 
which was used as a cook-house by former tenants, 
but now serves as an operation room ; the furniture is 
arranged for use, and a sturdy Pathan woman stands 
by the table, holding a sickly-looking child of three, 
who is munching a cucumber. It is rather hopeless 
work, pointing out to the mother that such food is the 
cause of his ailment, for the fact of his wanting it is 
quite enough reason for her to give it to him. A 
smiling Hazari woman is the next arrival. She was 
nursed back to life in the Hospital from pneumonia ; 
she is followed by a Sindhi, whose hungry, yearning 
look tells us what she w ants without asking. She 
says: ' Miss Sahiba, I am not ill, but there is hunger in 
my heart, hunger for a baby boy.' She then relates 
how her boy, the light of her eyes, died a good many 
years ago, and her husband is not satisfied with the 
daughter she has, so that unless she has another son, 
he will take a second wife, and divorce her. Next 
come two Persi ladies, clad in the graceful sari ; they 
are followed by a number of Gujeratis, several of 
whom are old friends, and greet us warml}'." 

Many of the out-patients live so far off that they 
cannot come and return in one day; indeed, some- 
times their journey one way takes two or three days. 
These visitors are therefore gi\'en an evening meal, a 
night's rest, and some breakfast, to send them on their 
way refreshed and strengthened. 

The first year's work exhibits some remarkable 
statistics. No fewer than 6,719 Dispensary attend- 
ances were registered, and over a thousand patients 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK -Mg 

had been visited in the villages. Even during the 
outbrtak of plague, when wild stories to the effect 
that people coming for treatment to the Christian 
Hospital would be carried off and poisoned were 
being circulated, out-patients continued to come, and 
the work steadily grew, until, at the present time, in 
the new premises, as many as 15,000 attendances in 
twelve months are recorded. 

In July, 1898, the landlord of the Hospital build- 
ings gave our workers notice to quit, and the building 
of a permanent hospital was hastened. The site 
obtained was just outside the City, and is being 
rapidly surrounded by native houses. In the near 
distance is a grand mountain range, and nearer still in 
mild weather, numbers of gfipsy encampments are to 
be seen between the villages. 

On July 8th, i8g8, a Dedicatory Service took place. 
During the singing of a hymn the red Mission flag, 
with white cross surmounted by a golden crown, was 
hoisted on a 50ft. staff. " It looks grand," wrote Dr. 
Charlotte Wheeler, enthusiastically, " waving in the 
air, a constant witness for Christ." The Good 
Shepherd Hospital, as it has been named, is built of 
sun-dried bricks. Zenana fashion, in the form of a 
serai, or square, the courtyard in the centre providing 
a pardah compound for the m-patients, the side facing 
the road forming the out-patient department. Two 
sides consist of operating room, wards, kitchen, and 
native workers' quarters, while the fourth side i; taken 
up by store rooms and servants' houses. 

No sooner was the building opened than a steady 
increase of patients took place. The women flocked in 
before the rooms were ready to receive them, and the 
workers were nearly swamped in work. It soon became 
necessary to enlarge the Hospital, and, in 1900, the 
accommodation was increased to eight wards, holding 
thirty-five beds, without cost to the general funds of 
the C.E.Z.M.S. The chief addition consisted of three 



220 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

family wards built on the outer side of the Hospital, 
each with its own verandah and compound. Hitherto 
there had been no room within the Hospital where a 
father could visit a sick child, or a husband his wife, 
without destroying the pardali character of the 
institution. This arrangement was especially noted 
with approval by the Bishop of Lahore, after his visit 
to the Hospital in igoo. 

The Hospital staff now consists of Dr. Charlotte 
Wheeler and Miss White, Miss Lowry (the English 
Matron), the Bible-woman matron, Barakat Bibi, and 
four Indian Christian girls. " The native women," 
says Dr. Wheeler, " differ nothing from the English in 
capability for training in nursing, and as they develop 
much earlier, quite young girls of only fifteen or sixteen 
are often reliable nurses." 

The work of the day begins with prayer and a short 
Bible reading. Then the in-patients are seen, and 
after that the out-patient department is in full swing. 

When we enter the Hospital we find nearly all the 
patients out in the sunshine, for unless a woman is too 
ill to be moved it is almost impossible to keep her in 
bed. A number of spare charpaies arc alwa\-s on hand 
and the stronger help the weaker ones into the fresh 
air. Very picturesque and very happy the women look 
in their white chaddars and bright garments. One is 
singing, two or three are nursmg babies or hugging 
dolls, some are swinging, and others are (juietly resting. 
Bright, lovable, and grateful for little kindnesses, 
these women ha\e the most lively appreciation of a 
joke. One of the ways to their hearts is to make them 
laugh. 

Though they dread pain, they are wonderfully 
brave in bearing it, sometimes stuffing their cJiaddars 
into their mouths to keep from calling out. 

The iron bedsteads, ^of Jinglish make, are laced with 
string, renewed as often as may be necessary. The 
bedding consists of blankets and sheets. The patient's 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 



221 



ordinary food is the native bread, ddl, rice, meat, milk, 
spices, &c. 

The majority of the patients appreciate all that is 
done for them, although their respect for European 
ways is often shown by following their own ! 




The Good Shepherd Hospital, Quetta. 

The occupants of one Ward tuniel out into th;^ Verandah to bs ^photographed : 
Pathans, 15rahuis, Persians, and Hindus. 

Considering the short time they stay in hospital, 
perhaps this is not surprising. Their astonishment at 
the cleanliness and order to which they are wholly 
unaccustomed is very marked. The Brahuis i.e., the 
gipsies, especially are wonder-struck. Some English 
friends, having carefully sent out some Brahui robes 
made according to the native pattern, the transforma- 
tion from soiled, dark village garments to beautiful 
sky-blue or pink gowns was irresistibly comical to 
all but the proud wearers, who were^ delighted with 



2 22 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the exchange ! The ordinary comfortable Hospital 
clothing is a kurta or jacket, pyjamas or loose trousers, 
and a chaddar or scarf. 

Several cases of peculiar interest from a doctor's 
point of view have been treated in Quetta Hospital. 
One poor woman came with her face bound down to 
her chest in consequence of cicatricial contraction after 
a terrible burn. The strained tissue was cut through, 
and the resulting wound was skin-grafted most success- 
fully. 

Here, as in England, but much more frequently, 
cases are often too far advanced for cure. Dr. Wheeler 
tells of one " dear, unselfish girl" suffering from a 
terrible injury for which an operation was unavailing. 
" When she learnt that nothing could be done to 
relieve her, her great desire was that the Miss Sahibas 
should not be sorrowful. Not one word of repining 
escaped her lips, though she knew that when she 
returned home her husband would probably divorce 
her." 

Although, as yet, there have been no baptisms or 
open conversions, there has been much encouragement 
in individual cases. A fine old Pathan woman, who 
several times became an in-patient, remarked one 
morning, " My pain is very bad, but I know it comes 
from God, and I just put my hand to my mouth," i.e., 
keep silent. Miss White, writing in 1899, said, " I wish 
you could have seen the face of a woman in the ' Sutton 
and Craven ' bed } esterday morning, as she heard, 
probably for the first time, that God loves her, and has 
forgiven her sins for Jesus' sake and will take her to 
Heaven. The remembrance of her eyes of desperate 
anxiety bring the tears to mine when I think of her. 
She looked as if she would tear m}- very soul to find 
the irntJi. One patient, a little, gentle Mahommedan 
woman, will probabl}' stay with us until she passes 
through the valley. I was telling her last night how 
God loved her, and how He had sent Jesus to die for 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 223 

us, and she told me that now she is not at all afraid to 
die." 

A still more interesting patient the Doctor mentions 
lovingly, one who was with her for more than a year : — 

" Her mother brought her to us on foot through the 
Khyber Pass, from a village several days' journey from 
Peshawar. Her name was Janama ; she was suffering 




The Good Shepherd Hospital Statf, Quetta. 



from leprosy, but of the less malignant type. It was 
not far advanced, and we felt that, with certain pre- 
cautions, we might admit her. She improved much 
under treatment, and became very happy. At the 
Bible reading her eager face was quite a help and 
encouragement, and she would frequently repeat what 
I had said, expressing herself in such a way that the 
other patients should better understand my words. At 
the end of the prayer her voice joined with mine, say- 
mg in Pashtu, ' for Jesus Christ's sake.' 



224 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

" If a patient needed food or medicine in the night, 
Janama could always be relied upon to see that she had 
it. When I went my Hospital rounds in the morning, 
she nearly always accompanied me, so as to be able to 
do anything she could in the way of fetching and carry- 
ing ; and when any special directions were given to the 
patients, she was always ready to enforce what was 
said, her whole face showing her earnestness as she 
impressed upon any individual the instructions given : 
so faithful a companion was she that Miss White used 
to call her my 'clinical clerk.' 

" Her mother heard that she was becoming a 
Christian, and insisted on removing her ; a band of 
about two hundred Mahommedan men came for her, and 
as we could not prove that she was of age, we could 
noc keep her. Whilst with us she had learnt St. John 
iii. lb, and from the house in the city to which she was 
taken, she sent us word that she would not forget it. 
In her distant home beyond the frontier, where 
European missionaries cannot penetrate, she may be 
able to carry the good tidings of a Saviour. Pray for 
her that she may be kept from spiritual and bodily 
harm, and that God's Holy Spirit may lead and teach 
her." 

The patients' love for their Doctor Miss Saliiba 
has often been strikingly demonstrated. Gifts of 
vegetables from their tiny gardens find their way to 
her. In the winter of 1898, when Dr. C. Wheeler was 
laid aside by a severe illness, the grief of the women 
was touching to witness. One Pathan patient remarked 
afterwards, " When the Doctor Miss Sahiba was ill, I 
stood outside and wept, and that was the way with 
everyone." 

During igoo, as many as 700 in-patients were 
received and 267 operations were performed. Fifty 
rupees were given in token of gratitude for the recovery 
of his boy by a well-educated, English-speaking Hindu 
gentleman, who desired that they might be divided 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 225 

between the C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S. Hospitals. Dr. 
Summerhays had performed a serious but successful 
operation on the child in one of the family wards of 
the Good Shepherd Hospital. The Colonel of a native 
regiment, now on service in China, sent Rs.ioo, at the 
request of the Hazaras in the regiment, as a token of 
gratitude for kindness shewn by Dr. C. Wheeler to 
their women while they were in Quetta It is interest- 
ing, too, to record that the soldiers who frequented the 
Soldiers' Home spontaneously supplied a large number 
of their empty matchboxes, which proved invaluable for 
ointments, which the out-patients formerly received in 
pieces of paper, with the probable result that by the 
time it had travelled four or five miles to the patients' 
home, under a burning sun,thesalve was reduced to oil. 
The C.K.Z. Dispensary, in Sukkur, one of the most 
important towns in Upper Sindh, was begun in a large 
disused tobacco storehouse on the ground lioor; now it 
is to be found above the level of the street in a much 
lighter and brighter house in the same locality. Two 
narrow ghitis run parallel from one main bazaar to 
another, and t le Dispensary and school building com- 
bined stretches from one ghiii to another, so narrow is 
the lane as to be only the width of a small house. 

Round the door of the house the mud-wall is colour- 
wished pale blue, and above the door hangs a board 
telling passers-by, in two languages, that this is a 
Medicine Place for Women. 

A steep, winding staircase from the door leads into 
a small open courtyard, on one side of which is a 
verandah. Two doors open from this, one into the 
Dispensary — a room about twelve feet square — and the 
other into a schoolroom. Here, by our medically 
trained Missionary-in-charge, simple remedies are dis- 
pensed to the women who come in one by one for 
medicine, while the Gospel message is spoken and sung 
to those who wait their turn outside or in another ?mall 
room. 



2 26 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

These Sindhi women have firm beHef in the efficacy 
of iodine hniment for every pain, and Miss Brook tells 
an amusing story of a patient who, not only begged 
that some might be painted on her forehead to cure 
headache, but insisted on having it applied also to her 
nose. The effect of the decoration is better imagined 
than described. 

In visiting the sick in their homes there is constant 
encouragement. Very recently a dear old Hindu 
woman named Haritai was very ill. Not caring for 
anything else in her great pain, she was always able to 
say, " Read the paper," by which she meant, " Sing a 
hymn," the hymn book used being a small unbound 
paper one. After the hymn she would touch her heart 
and say, " It comforts me. It is good ! It is sweet ! " 

The history of our medical ministries in Kashmir 
has been specially sketched for us by Miss Stubbs, now 
at work in the Srinagar Dispensary. She says : — 

"The Church of England Medical Mission in 
Kashmir has had a remarkably chequered history. At 
one time there was a flourishing little hospital,* 
presided over by lady doctors and nurses. In i8gi, 
sad to say, one ot the floods which occasionally 
inundate this country washed away the building, and 
only with much difficulty were some of the drugs and 
appliances saved. 

" Nothing daunted, the work was again started, and 
other quarters obtained, but in 1893 a second flood did 
much damage. Shortly after this the medical work of 
the C.E.Z.M.S. was for a time abandoned. 

"In 1897 Miss Hull asked Miss Foy, whom she had 
met in the Punjab, and who had worked under Miss 
Hewlett at St. Catherine's, Amritsar, to join the 

* The John Bishop Memorial Hospital. This work will, it is 
hoped, now be continued by the C.^I.S. at Islamabad, the second 
largest city in Kashmir, about forty miles distant from Srinagar : 
while the C.K.Z..M.S. will continue to work ajiiouL; the women in 
the citv of Srinagar. 



2 28 BET WE EX LIFE AND DEATH 

Kashmir Mission and to help her by visiting the sick 
in her Zenanas. 

" Not ^•cry long after Miss Foy came it was thought 
ad\isable to open a Dispensarx- in a much crowded and 
central part of tlie city. 

" At first the women came by twos and threes, but, 
very soon, the news spread that good medicine was to 
be obtained at a place where women could be sure that 
no men would come, and the numbers had increased 
to almost two hundred on each Dispensary day when 
I joined the Mission in June, i8g8. 

" xAs the Kashmiri women do not understand 
Hindustani, it became necessary for us to learn 
Kashmiri, which is a most difficult and uncertain 
language. A small grammar, a vocabulary, and the 
Bible are the onlv books obtainable, this latter being 
written in the Persian character, \\hich is far from 
expressing the pronunciation correctly. When one's 
progress seems \-cry slow it is comforting to find that 
men of learning say that it takes fifteen years to get a 
hold of Kashmiri. 

" Now having introduced }-ou to the people and the 
language, let us go and spend a day in the city and 
visit the Dispensary ! 

'■ Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir, is built on both 
sides of the Jhelum. Se\-en curious and beautiful 
bridges span the ri\"er, about which there are many 
wonderful legends. 

" The streets are too narrow to admit of any vehicle 
but a bic\cle ; consequent!}' the usual mode of 
progression is on horseback or b\- water. The former 
is preferable in winter, the latter in summer. Our 
trip to-dav will be in our " Shikara," as the nati\-e boat 
is called. Our three boatmen will row us with c/my^/ars 
(picturesque, heart-shaped paddles). 

"We take with us our tiffin, as we may be kept a 
long time in the cit}\ also any medicines for replenish- 
ing the stock. We land at the fourth bridge, or zina 



THE KEY IX THE LOCK 229 

kadal, and, turning up a narrow lane, we find ourselves 
in the street on the right of which you will see our 
Dispensary with "Zenana Shifa Khana " written in 
Persian characters over it. 

" We are greeted with cries of Fui auhvc, Tsa nnbrc, 
i.e., " Blessnigs on thee ! Blessings on thee ! " as 
soon as we are inside the courtyard. 

We exchange a few pleasant words with the women, 
then go upstairs, arrange our medicine, and set all in 
readiness lor the day's work. 

" One of us, taking a Kashmiri Gospel, goes down to 
give the first address m the room below. The women 
sit on the hoor. Nearly every one of them has a baby. 
She has also one or two vessels in which to carry away 
her medicine. Her shoes she leaves outside the door, 
as it would not be at all polite to wear them inside. 

"We are helped in our work by two native women, 
both of them far cleaner and gentler than the majority 
of Kashmiris. One, the widow of a Sikh of high 
caste, knowing both languages, is able to translate for 
us. The other is a Mahommedan who speaks only 
Kashmiri. 

"■ We are looking forward to the happy day when 
we shall both be able to speak without any go- 
between. 

" The women, Mahommedan and Hindu, listen very 
attentively ; they never laugh at our mistakes, though 
they have plenty of humour. They are very dirty and 
terribly ignorant, very slow to understand, and to 
teach them to remember anything is a work requiring 
God-given love and paliience. There is so much 
superstition and caste prejudice to overcome. 

" After the women have heard the address they come, 
one by one, to receive trcatmcni; a second congregation 
is meantime assembling downstciirs, and possibly a 
third will do so after that. 

" The great majority of the patients get better very 
quickly. Some we recommend to go to the C.M.S. 



23<5 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

general Hospital — or, if nearer to their homes, to the 
State Hospital for women if they will. Many are the 
expressions of love and gratitude we receive, and it is 
with difficulty we can persuade them to go anywhere 
else. The State Hospital does not give any religious 
teaching, 

" After the dispensary is closed we must go to see in 
their homes any who have sent for us to-day, or any 
old patients who need a visit ; in each house hoping to 
leave, if possible, some thought of Him Who sent us. 

" The richer people give us fees, and we gladly 
accept them, knowing that they are much more likely 
to take the medicines and profit by the treatment it they 
have paid for them. 

" Our funds are low, and there is not an aiiiia wasted, 
as we have but two native assistants, and do almost 
everything ourselves. The working expenses, roughly 
speaking, are about £4 a month."' 

In connection with Hyderabad, the ancient capital 
of Sindh, must ever be remembered the life and work of 
Miss Marian Compton, who died from a carriage acci- 
dent, at Quetta, on Easter Monday, 1896, and a slight 
sketch of this devoted labourer will not be out of place 
here. 

In the autumn of 1887 Miss Compton was appointed 
to Hyderabad, where very quickly stie endeared herself 
to the people. The following year a Dispensary was 
opened in the city, to which the women gladly liocked. 
Never was our sister content to minister to bodily 
necessities merely, but was ever anxious to point to the 
Great Physician for ' God"s remed\' for sin.' 

B}' day and by night her ser\ices were at the 
disposal ot the women of Hyderabad, both Hindu and 
Mahommedan, by whose bedsides she would untiringly 
minister. 

Never thinking of herself, ever cheery, ever con- 
fident, she was a constant inspiration to her fellow 
workers, physical as well as spiritual fitness enabling 



tHE KEY L\ THE LOCK 23* 

her to accomplish a great amount of work without 
overstrain. Her loving sympathy was not confined to 
Hyderabad, but spread to the women of the towns 
around. A Dispensary was opened at Kotri, five 
miles distant across the Indus, whither she went once 
a week, winning the hearts of the people by her bright 
and cheerful manner, as well as b}- her successful 
treatment. 

Many of her fellow Missionaries owed much to her 
tender and efficient ministrations in times of sickness 
and suffering — a side of the Medical Missionary's 
calling which we have not touched upon in this little 
book, but which is of inestimable importance. 

What a blank was left when that useful life so 
suddenly closed, few can know. When the news 
reached Hyderabad, the grief and distress were great 
indeed. It was hard to console the weeping native 
Christian women. 

The Prahhat, a Hyderabad vernacular newspaper, 
remarked in its English supplement : — 

" To give relief to the sick and suffering seems to 
have been the end and aim of her life, and she never 
lost sight of it. Exceedingly courteous, kind, and 
attentive to her patients, and, indeed, to all with whom 
she came in contact, she was a general favourite. 
When she visited any house, the women and children 
would flock around her, as though she were their 
nearest relative, and pour into her sympathetic ears 
things that they would not tell any other." 

Some of the leading Sindhi gentlemen circulated 
the following notice : — 

" At the earnest desire of numerous friends and 
admirers of the late Miss Compton, of the C.E.Z.M.S., 
who had dedicated her life with such rare unselfishness 
to the cause of suftering women and children in this 
city, a public meeting of the citizens of Hyderabad will 
be held in the compound of the native General Library 
on Tuesday, the 14th inst., to give public expression to 



232 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the great grief felt by the people of this city at her 
sudden and premature death, and to send a letter of 
condolence to her relatives." 

The meeting was held. Four or five Sindhi 
gentlemen spoke, all bearing testimony to the life of 
self-sacrificing usefulness that had just closed. Thus 
greatly was she esteemed by even those who could not 
sympathize with her higher motives.* 

Medical Mission work in Hyderabad to-day is 
chiefly among poor Mahommedans, of whom as many 
as 500 a month attend the Dispensary, open every 
other day. Miss Piggott visits also the homes of the 
people, sometimes prescribing simple remedies for 
as many as eighteen patients in a day. A Christian 
nurse, a convert from Mahommedanism, and a Christian 
helper in the city work, a convert from Hinduism, are 
living testimonies to the two great parties of what 
Christ has done for one of their own people. These 
earnest women gain a most attentive hearing. But of 
the Hyderabad Mission its workers say that it seems at 
present to be a silent Mission — they see as yet so little 
spiritual result. Many of the women who come to the 
Dispensary are very familiar with the Gospel as far as 
head knowledge goes, but hearts appear to remain 
untouched. Yet we know that the Great Husband- 
man will not forget to water the hidden seed, which, 
one day, must spring up. 

In the spring of 1900, regular C.E.Z. Medical 
Mission work began in Dera Ghazi Khan, under the 
care of Miss Grace Adams, L.S.A. A small women's 
Hospital was carried on in a native house, and during 
the year 123 in-patients were received, while 4,000 out- 
patients were treated. This work, we regret to have to 
add, is now suspended. Dera Ismail Khan, a station 
lying also in the strip of flat country between the Indus 
and the Suleiman Mountains, was also held as a medical 

"'From a sketch by " }.R." in Itidias Women and China's 
J)aii''Itic) s. 



THE KEY IN THE LOCK 233 

Outpost, the work being carried on by a succession 
of workers, of whom Miss Werthmiiller is now in 
charge, assisted by Miss L. Malaim-ud-din, one of the 
native padris daughters, who joined the Mission as 
compounder. As many as 117 in-patients have been 
received in a year into tha small bungalow used as 
a Hospital, and over 14,000 patients have visited 
the Dispensary in the same time. 

We have not space even to sketch an outline of the 
good work carried on at Dera Ismail Khan ; but again 
and again inquirers have been brought out and lovingly 
pointed to the Saviour. Miss Rosetta Johnson, a 
trained nurse, who has lovingly laboured amongst 
the women for some years, told the following pathetic 
story, which shows how apparently hard, heathen 
hearts melt at the touch of a Christ-like comforter: — 

" One young wife sent for me, her mother saying, 
' My poor girl has no one to speak to ; she sits 
quite still all day, and when any of the women ask her 
why she does not talk and laugh with them, she only 
says, " I have nothing to laugh at." She will not even 
let me share her trouble {i.e., that her husband is very 
cruel to her), but says if she may pour out her sorrow 
to you, just put her head on your shoulder and have a 
crv, she will feel better." " 



CHAPTER IX 

PATHS OF PAIN 

or 

Hospitals and Dispensaries in Soitfli India 
and Ceylon. 

"Each moment that we hve 
We, too, are casting shadows on our way 
Throughout hfe's dusty footpaths. Lord, we pray 
That ours, Hke Peter's, l^e a heahng ray." 

THE pathos of a heathen woman's hfe, as seen 
by the woman physician, would eat her heart 
out were it not for the hope of changing its 
sorrow into joy," was the recent remark of a Medical 
Missionary, who is devoting her life with glad enthusi- 
asm to the service of her suffering sisters. 

We can well believe it. In order to touch with 
true sympathy such loveless, pain-fraught lives, the 
ministering woman has to walk, step by step, in close 
companionship with the one who is treading paths of 
pain ; and the burden might press all too heavily, the 
strain be all too great, were it not that she is up-borne 
by the strength and hope and gladness of that two-fold 
" healing ray " which it is given her to impart. The 
magnificence of her message is in itself an inspiration : 
the greatness of her calling gives her courage ; but, 
above all, the Medical Missionary recognizes that she 



2 -id 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 




is in divine partnership with the great Physician Him- 
self, and therefore she possesses a humble, awe-fiUed, 
but triumphant faith. 

As a doctor she sees the interest of the case. As a 
woman doctor, she has sympathy with a sick sister ; 

but the Missionary 
woman doctor sees in 
each suffering body a 
soul to be won for the 
Master, to Whom she 
ministers prayerfully, 
humbly, and with con- 
secrated service. 

Yet, if our prayers 
are to sustain our 
Medical Missionary re- 
presentatives in the 
foreign field as they 
should, we must in- 
telligently enter into 
their position, and we 
venture to think that no more true, as well as 
striking, words have been uttered in this connection 
than those penned many 3'ears ago by a senior C.E.Z. 
Indian Missionary of long standing. 

" Years of contact with heathen do not necessarily 
bring callous indifference to the terrible sins and 
miseries in which they live. A Medical Missionary 
among women in India has to descend into the depths 
of a moral atmosphere so vile that in it one may be 
metaphorically said to have to gasp for breath. 

" Delicate regard for the feelings of those who read 
forbids any revelations being made b)- the pen ; suffice 
it to say that the Christian Englishwoman, whose duty 
requires her to investigate their evils (as entirely dis- 
tinct from the lady who goes to the more respectable 
houses to teach), feels more and more every day how 
truly she is fighting, medically as well as spiritually, 



Miss A. G. Lillingston, L.R.C.P. & S.Ed. 



PATHS OF PA IX 237 

with the powers of darkness : she works ' where Satan's 
seat is"; she often feels as if she would ^ive all she 
has in the world to be able to think that one woman 
with whom she converses were re dly pure, one little 
child in these houses the happy possessor of an unpol- 
luted mind ! " 

We have already tried to demonstrate the immense 
advantaj^es possessed by the Mission Hospital worker 
who can bring her patients out of their surroundings 
into a pure atmosphere, both physical and moral. 
Before passing on to the description of yet more 
Homes of Healing in India and in Ceylon, we would 
again remark that such places are mighty ocular 
proof to the watching heathen around of the fact 
that Christ's religion is not one of mere dogma and 
theory. 

They come to recognize that it is the embodiment 
of love — that vital principle which they are bound to 
confess permeates the lives of its true followers. The 
patients are able to test the teaching by the 1 ves of the 
teachers ; they find that deeds square with doctrines. 
"A wound carefully dressed, patience under the provo- 
cation of disobedience or ingratitude, justice in the 
control of an establishment, the maintenance of clean- 
liness, and all that goes to make up discipline, 
the opportunities for dvimonstrating the difference 
between honest work and eye-service, these things are 
more valuable than many a sermon," and are an object 
lesson never given in vain. 

Prayer and praise marked every step in the history 
of the building of the Gosha Hospital, Bangalore. For a 
very long time the need was felt for such an institution 
for suffering Mahommedan women, who are kept in 
strict seclusion, or o;osha, the South Indian term for the 
pardah system. And the fact that it is growingly 
appreciated ma\' be seen from the statistics which 
show that the number of in-patients has steadily 
increased by 100 a year, and last year by about 5^0. 



238 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Some 2,000 suffering \\'omen are ministered to within 
its walls durinf^ a twelvemonth. 

A deeply interesting account of the steps leading up 
to its erection has been written i n India's Wonen 
and China's DaiigJiiei's for November, 1^99, by 
Miss Thom, under the appropriate title '" A Record of 
Answered Prayer." 

To Miss Anna .Smith, aided by Miss Ewart and a 
few other generous friends at home, the Hospital, 
under God, owes its existence. Note-books of the 
prayer meetings held by the Christian lady workers in 
the C.E.Z.M. House in Bangalore ever since Ma}-, 
1887, contain simple records of definite p^etitions, and 
of equally definite answers gratefully recorded. 

From the first link in December, 1S87, when prayer 
was asked *' for ladies to be sent here who can undertake 
medical work for Christ, especiall}- to lielp the poor 
Mahommedans," to the plea in April, i^OJ, '" for site 
of GosJia Hospital, an application for winch is again 
(after having been refused) before the Municipal 
Council." God abundantly fulfilled petition after 
petition. Through His servants on the s[)ot, and their 
friends at home, money supplies were sent in sufficient 
to warrant the purchase of a site costing moi-e than 
Rs. 15,000 (/i,ooo), which at last became theirs. It 
was a noticeable fact that the Council which granted 
this highlv ad\'antageous site of fi\c acres on rising 
ground just above the Cantonments Rail\\a\' Station — 
airy and open, yet close to the town — was composed 
of Mahommedans and Hindu:=, Vv'ith on]_\' a few 
Europeans. 

Meanwhile, the first and greatest need had been laid 
by God on the hearts of His children, ere one stone of 
the building was laid, vi/., one or more consecrated 
lady doctors, and this pra\x'rwas richl\- answered. Wy 
the time that the Hospital was read\' to be opened, a 
\-oung lady, Miss A. G. Lillingston, sister of one of the 
earliest C.E.Z. workers in Bangalore, had passed the 



PATHS OF PAIN 



239 



medical examination, had studied Urdu for six months 
in North India, and was fully equipped to be the first 
head of the Hospital. 

And so, on October 30th, 1893, by God's good hand 
upon His servants' work, the foundation stone of the 
new Hospital was laid by Bishop Gell, of Madras, in 
the presence of Colonel Henderson, British Resident 




The Gosha Hospital, Bangalore. 

in Mysore, and other friends. The C.E.Z.M.S. had 
been quite unable to contribute anything-; 3'et, in 
addition to the money obtained for the site, a sum of 
Rs. 14, 993 had been already sent in. 

" It was indeed wonderful," sa}-s Miss Thorn, " how, 
although no one — so far as is known — ever personally 
asked for a donation, the Lord sent in funds as 
required. 

"Also how He raised up friends and counsellors to 
supply the advice needed as to ' plans,' the super- 
intendence of the materials and the workmen, even to the 



240 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

gifts of trees and shrubs for the large, bare com- 
pound, by the Curator of the Lai Bagh." 

During the same week in which Dr. Amy Lillingston 

landed in Bombay, a Christian lady. Miss Clare de 

Noe Walker, who was specially fitted to become head 

of the nursing department, and ably to second all the 

efforts of the lady doctors, offered her services. Thus, 

in October, 1895. Hospital, Doctor, and Nursing 

Sister were ready for work ; and on the last day of that 

month, the long-desired, long-prayed-for building was 

opened by Mrs. Mackworth Young, wife of the British 

Resident, the venerable Bishop Gell conducting a 

service of praise and prayer. Well could the Bishop 

say, in his address after the service, pointing to the 

building: "There it stands in this great un-Christian 

land as a witness of our Sa\iour"s lo\e and sympathy 

— that divme love and svmpath}- of which so little is 

known outside Christendom — which reveal the life, 

work, and words of God's dear Son." A harbour of 

refuge truly it was to prove, not only for many a 

Mahommedan or Hindu woman, but ^ for native 

Christian sufferers as well. I'^or hitherto, as there was 

no Protestant Hospital, these had been obliged to place 

themselves in the hands of Roman Catholic nuns, and 

of the coercion in religion to which they were thus 

exposed in times of weakness we need hardly speak, in 

Over Rs.40,000 (about £"2,400) had been sent in 

answer to prayer towards the building, so that the 

institution now erected is much larger than at first 

proposed. So abundantly does our God gi\e above 

what we ask or think. 

Standing on higli ground, the Hospital is an impos- 
ing looking building of grey stone, two stories in 
height, and surrounded b}- a large compound enclosed 
by a high wall. It is built in blocks, and the grey 
arches of the long, co\ered corridors which connect the 
centre building with the two wings, being filled in on 
the outer side with an open lattice of red tiles, give 



PATHS OF PAIN 24! 

quite a charming and attractive appearance to this 
House of Heahng, as well as affording a cool and gosJia 
promenade for convalescents. 

The ground floor of the central block is given up to 
the Dispensary with its consulting, waitmg, and store 
rooms, &c. ; while the floor above may be called the 
Medical Missionaries' " flat," since it is furnished with 
sitting rooms, bedrooms, and kitchen complete, though 
this last convenience — an upstairs kitchen, so rare in 
India — is by no means an unmixed blessing, by reason 
of its accompaniments — smoke and chatter. 

The Hospital, with its eight wards, was built to 
accommodate twenty-four patients, but as many as 
forty, if necessary, can be received. 

Facing the front entrance, the east wing is on the 
right. The " May Ward," so named after Lady 
Mackworth Young, contains six beds and a child's cot. 
It seems peculiarly attractive to child patients, who are 
generally to be found within its bright, picture-hung 
walls, or those of "Friendship Ward" next door. 
Upstairs " Sunrise " and " Mothers' " Wards represent 
babyland. x\t times, as many as seven or eight new 
babies are to be found in these two rooms. 

On the ground floor of the west wing, the Victoria 
Ward at once confronts the visitor, its walls decorated 
with coloured prints of the late beloved Queen Victoria 
and her Jubilee procession of 1897, in which year this 
ward was first opened. The annexed smaller ward, 
" Munro," often has to be given up to some patient 
who at first must be humoured with a room to herself, 
and with plenty of space for her mother or sister-in-law. 

Upstairs, "Sunset" — the brightest of the wards 
when the evening light floods it with golden glory — and 
a small operating room complete the plan of the 
Hospital proper. All the ward bathrooms are at the 
back, and flights of stairs lead down from both front 
and back of the building. But we must not forget 
to mention the most popular part of the building — ■ 



242 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the flat roof, whither by a stairway (dark and steep, 
it is true) the convalescen-t Mahommedan women, shut 
in from the outside world all their lives, love to 
clamber in the evening. There, well wrapped in their 
red or grey Hospital blankets, they are delighted to sit, 
together with a group of convalescing children, women- 
servants, &c., a happy little al fresco gathering, drink- 
ing in new life with the fresh air. 

From the roof they can look down upon the porch, 
which (like the corridors which are pressed into service 
as wards when occasion arises), is often transformed 
into a room for classes. The evening air is sweet 
with the scent of roses standing there, of honeysuckle 
and bourganvillea, which climb up over it, and of the 
stephanotis which struggles upwards towards the 
Missionaries' sitting room. 

Against the west wall are the out-buildings, shaded 
by beautiful trees. The mortuary is in a corner, near 
the door, so that funerals may take place as quietly as 
possible. The housekeeper and nurses sleep in rooms 
beneath a shady verandah, and near by is the Hospital 
kitchen, into which not even a lady doctor is permitted 
to enter. The housekeeper supervises the tidiness and 
cleanliness and sees that the milk is made to boil while 
standing on the doorstep, without venturing to go 
beyond ! 

A high caste cook, not a Brahmin, is em- 
ployed, who will undertake to make mutton or 
chicken broth, which a Brahmin would refuse to do, 
and who can cook for her own caste and all beneath it. 
But Brahmin's food must be prepared b}- a Brahmin, 
and that for Mahommedans by a Moslem, and so small 
separate kitchens must be provided for each. Strict 
Mahommedans can only eat meat killed, marked, and 
" sealed " by one specially authorised to do it. As the 
Hospital is on the outskirts of the Cantonment where 
most of the Mahommedan patients live, their "diet" 
is usuallv cooked in their own houses and is brought to 



PATHS OP PAW 243 

them by their relatives. So different are Hospital 
regulations in India from those in England ! 

To return to the wards and their inmates. The 
iron bedsteads are made comfortable resting places by 
thick mattresses, in reality large bags, made of ticking 
and filled with straw, which is frequently changed ; the 
pillows, also, are stuffed either with straw or common 
native bazaar cotton wool. Ordinary Hospital sheets, 
blankets, and a red and white or patchwork quilt com- 
plete the bed furnishings. 

A patient's ordinary diet consists of half a pint 
of coffee and a small loaf of bread at 7 a.m. ; rice and 
curry at noon and again at 6 p.m. Those on "milk 
diet " have three pints of boiled milk or gruel in 
the twenty-four hours. 

Eight Indian Christian young women are always 
in training as nurses, two of whom take night duty 
in turn. 

They are usually girls of 18 or ig, if possible, 
straight from a Mission Boarding School, and their 
general training lasts two years ; most of them, how- 
ever, take a third year's maternity course. They 
usually make bright and efficient nurses. 

Diseases of the digestive organs, due to the poor 
food and hard lives of the working women, are very 
common complaints, but lung troubles, too, bring large 
numbers of sufferers to the refuge of the Hospital. 

Cases of medical and surgical interest, rarely or 
never seen in England, constantly come before the 
staff. Some are patients who have needed surgical 
interference for years, and who have gone without 
treatment till the prospect looked hopeless. One poor 
girl, who had suffered untold pain for six \'ears, 
presented a very difficult case which might well have 
been despaired of. But after much prayer, and pains, 
and patience, the surgeon's skill was rewarded by 
perfect restoration. Another patient had dislocated 
her jaw three months previous to coming for treat- 



244 nnrwEEN life and death 

ment, and could, of course, neither eat nor speak 
properly. 

During the outbreak of plague in Bangalore, in 
1898, the Gosha Hospital witnessed many a sad sight, 
and the doctor's aid was continually sought for. Three 
hundred Mahommedans a day were dying in the 
cantonments just below the compound ; and women 
were brought either dying to the Hospital or developed 
symptoms immediately after admission ; in either case, 
only to be moved at once to the plague camp. 

Hindus of every caste, from Brahmins to Chuklas, 
become in-patients, and Tamils, Canarese, Telegus, 
and Marathis are to be found in the wards. Add 
to these the Hindustani-speaking Mahommedans, and 
it will be seen that the workers need to possess the gift 
of acquiring tongues ! On the whole, the differing 
castes are more manageable than might be expected ; 
consideration and tact do a great deal to oil the wheels 
and prevent friction. 

Patients who have never before had to do with 
Europeans do not at first appreciate ways and methods 
so novel to them ; but by degrees they are won to 
admiration and gratitude- They are often surprised at 
the trouble — unnecessary as at first it seems to them — 
to make and keep them clean and comfortable, 
especially by the English ladies ; and the fact that the 
Missionaries will rise at night to attend to them is one 
which appeals very strongly to them, and fills them 
with grateful amazement. 

A day's work in the Hospital has been vividly 
sketched for us b}- Dr. A. G. Lillingston. 

" The nurses' day begins at 6.30 a.m. Each 
patient receives her allowance of coffee and bread, and 
the sweeping and scrubbing for the day begins. 

" In the Dispensary, ' Hope ' (our young Christian 
Indian dispenser) makes up stock powders and 
mixtures, while the out-patients begin to gather in the 
waiting room at about 7.30 a.m., and are seen in turn 



PATHS OF PAIN 



245 



until 9 o'clock by the doctor, who always has a nurse 
with her to assist in dressings, and to interpret the 
many tongues. When the women have received their 
prescriptions, they pass their papers and bottles 
through to the dispenser, but, as in all our Mission 
Dispensaries, the medicines are not given out to the 
patients until after prayers. At 9 a.m. the door is 




The Coshd Hospital StalT, Bangalore. 

shut ; the doctor, evangelist, and dispenser meet for a 
few moments' prayer, and then the women are divided 
in two groups, those who understand Hindustani, and 
those who speak Tamil. Two short Gospel meetings 
are then held. 

" Pakiammal, an Indian Christian woman, our 
Tamil iimnslii's wife, whose heart is on fire for God, 
comes daily, unless hindered by ill-health, without fee 
or emolument, to take the Tamil meeting, and after- 
wards visits each Hospital Ward for prayer with the 



246 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

patients. Almost without exception those who hav9 
been baptized say, ' It is through Pakiammal who firs; 
taught me,' 

" Miss Amy Wilson Carmichael, who, in 1895 
stayed for some months at the Bangalore Mission 
Hospital, says of her, '"Blessing" is her name, and it 
fits her. Her husband rejoices to lend her thus to the 
work of the Lord.' 

" At 9.30 a.m. the patients receive their pills and 
powders, lotions and ointments, and are dismissed. 

" But to return to the Hospital. 

"The nursing superintendent. Miss Clare de Noe 
Walker, has probably been down for some time in the 
linen-ioom giving out newspapers and rags to the 
nur-es who come for them, coupled with the strictest 
injunctions as to economy. That room, too, contains 
the nurses' stores of rice, curry stuffs, and wood, all of 
which have to be dispensed. Quite possibly, at this 
juncture, an exciting mouse hunt takes place, and 
some nurse or servant who is an expert ' mouser ' is 
called upor the scene ! After this, the superintendent 
goes into each ward to receive the night report, &c., 
and then, at 9 o'clock, the nurses gather round her for 
a Bible reading from the C.S.U. portion for the day. 
\'ery interesting it is to hear the verses read aloud in 
turn in the different tongues represented — it may be 
Tamil, Telugu, or Canarese. The catechizing and 
instruction, given either in Tamil or English, can be 
followed by all. 

" Meanwhile, the second doctor's hands have been 
full of special duties ; a visitor to interview, or a 
patient to be visited outside the compound, and cer- 
tainly notes to be written for the messenger who calls 
at 9 o'clock. Then, too, someone must undertake the 
Missionaries' housekeeping and order meals for the 
day. That work is gladly given over, whenever pos- 
sible, to the newest comer from home. 

'• At 9.30 one doctor is on her ward round, while 



PATHS OF PAIN 247 

the second goes into the Dispensary, and at 10.30 the 
breakfast bell rings. This meal concludes with a 
short prayer-meeting, when each ward and each patient 
in turn, together with any special requests, are laid 
before God in prayer. 

"At a quarter to twelve o'clock prayers are con- 
ducted for the Hospital and house servants in Tamil. 
x\fter that, the syces must receive orders and attention, 
if the stable and horses are to be kept in order and 
readiness for work, and then, too, probably some 
important operation has to be performed, or a newly- 
admitted patient has to be seen, 

'"Before the nurses go off duty from 12.30 to 3 
o'clock each reports herself to Miss Walker with the 
complacent remark, ' My ward is tidy. Sister,' and 
' Sister ' goes off to see whether the tidiness coincides 
with her idea of the same word. Likewise ' Hope' pre- 
sents herself with a list of drugs wanted and a similar 
declaration with regard to her store-room, which sends 
the doctor-in-charge to examine into the statement ; 
while at the same time the Missionary housekeeper is 
requisitioned by the house-cook, who has to report on 
her kitchen before she goes home at midday. 

" Those workers learning the language now find time 
to study and prepare, and trays with a light luncheon 
of milk, fruit, &c., are brought to our rooms, while at 
3 o'clock the nurses go in a body to the superinten- 
dent's room for the glass of milk awaiting each one. 

"The patients, as a rule, sleep from 2 to 3 o'clock 
after the midday bowls of rice and curry are cleared 
away. If Nurse Emily Dennis whose special work it 
is to follow up the patients to their homes and teach 
them there, is back from her morning rounds, she will 
be found in the war s after 3 o'clock making friends 
with the patients and their relatives. 

" Fiom the lunch hour until 4 o'clock we rest, if 
possible. At that hour the patients' visitors troop into 
the wards, and a quarter of an hour later we meet in 



248 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

our little sitting-room for tea, when we regularly 
expect to be interrupted with messages, and patients 
who are going out of Hospital come to say good-bye. 

" At 6 o'clock Nursing Classes, senior and junior, 
begin, and at 7 p.m. the Missionaries and nurses con- 
duct evening prayer in the wards ; then the doctors 
visit each with the night nurses, who, at 7.30, are left 
incharge, while the ladies are summoned to dinner. 

" Dinner proves a welcome rest-hour. In the hot 
weather it is cften spread for us in the porch, where 
we discuss it by the light of a hurricane lantern. At 
8.30 ' Hope' comes to say, ' Shall I call the night nuises?' 
and then, unless there is a patient who cannot be left 
alone, we all gather together in our little sitting-room 
forEnglish evening prayers, with a hymn ; and then it 
is good-night all round. The Hospital is quiet, save for 
theories of wakeful babies. But our day is not quite 
done, for Nurse Emily brings her day's report to me 
to read and to give advice, and what a full one it is ! 
for she has more requests for visits than she can pos- 
sibly comply with; and 'Sister' sees the Hospital 
housekeeper and hears anything that must be told, 
after which we settle dowm down to finish any writing 
that must be done — often a big item — and then to 
bed." 

Such are some of the daily activities of the Banga- 
lore staff. Now for a few moments let us glance at 
some typical patients. An old pariaJi woman, suffering 
from an abscess in her heel ; a little Christian school- 
girl, crippled with rheumatism ; a young Roman 
Catholic mother and baby ; a poor heathen girl recov- 
ering her right mind, slowly but surely ; a fast con- 
valescing woman — as grateful a patient as any — whom 
the doctor found very ill in her home surrounded by 
crowds of willing but incapable relatives and friends ; 
and two Goslia women, one of whom had never left her 
Zenana from the day of her marriage until she came to 
the Hospital, while the other is a little child-wife of 



PATHS OF PAIN 



249 



sixteen, who has suffered much and is very weak. 
Such were some of the cases received in the early days 
of the Hospital, and prototypes of many to follow. 
And what of the spiritual results ? Thank God, these 
have been neither few nor far between. 

On the first Sunday in February, 1S98, an old 
woman was publicly baptized in the Tamil Church, 
and we praised God for " first-fruits."" Only a year 
before, Latchmi was a demon worshipper. Her son 




Prayers with the Servants. 

had been a Christian for years, and he brought his sick 
mother to the Hospital, asking that she might be kept 
until she was a Christian too ! She was very ignorant, 
and slow to learn. It took Sister Clare more than 
half an hour to teach her to pray — in Tamil, of course 
— " Make in me a clean heart." At last she knew it, 
but about an hour later she came up to say that she had 
forgotten one of the words — " Please tell me again." 
But the Lord Jesus found Latchmi, and the change in 
face, and tone, and manner proved without a doubt 
how truly she had entered the Kingdom as a little 
child. At her baptism she received the name of 
Hannah, and the nati\e Christians present remarked 



250 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

that she must be converted from the way in which she 
walked up to the font in front of them all. It was 
a great happiness to watch the look of deep, serious joy 
on her old face. 

Some few months previously, " Friendship " ward 
had been the scene of a very joyful, solemn service, 
when an old caste woman, Sundarum by name, clearly 
and emphatically answered the baptismal questions, put 
to her by the pastor. Not many days after her true 
confession of Christ she was gathered home to Him. 

Yet the work, with all its gladness, has much of 
grave and solemn responsibility. Those who are really 
interested and heart-awakened are the few. Neither 
time nor strength allow the present staff of workers 
to keep in touch with all the former patients, though 
it is immensely important to do so. Here, as at 
Peshawar, the medical work is opening doors which, as 
yet, stand un-entered. The responsibility upon those 
in the home-land is very great. To quote Miss A. 
Wilson Carmichael again : — 

" These Hospital pictures. Look at them again ; they 
look so easy and happy, but to us they mean ' bits of 
sadness and of gladness strangely crossed and inter- 
laid ' ; of encouragement, discouragement, the need of 
a faith which won't get disappointed : of the patience 
upon patience that the doctor and sister need, of 
the strong divine love, and pity, and courage. These 
people come, and go, sometimes, we trust, touched for 
Christ. Sometimes, it seems so hard that they cannot 
feel. More than one has been carried out before she 
had a chance to hear — carried out dead. 

" Hospital Mission work is not play. One has only 
to live within its walls, even as an outsider, to learn the 
depth of the need for prayer and help from the home- 
land. 

" So, friends, will }0u pray ? Pra\' for the moving 
of the Spirit among these Mahommedan and Hindu 
hearts, so that when they hear they may respond, 



PATHS OF PAIN 251 

Pray for the Missionaries. Pray for reality, out-and- 
out consecration, nearness to God. Pray for more 
workers ; Pentecostal workers. They are needed. 
Pray that before they sail they may so know God that 
twthing will be able to put the fire out. Pray for these 
lands. Pray as one of your own Missionaries prayed 
for China. Pray Hill yon pray yourselves away.'' '' 

In 1885, Miss Graham, a trained nurse from the 
Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, was despatched by our 
Society to the relief of Mrs. Cain, wife of the Rev. J. 
Cain, C.M.S. Missionary to the Kois. Mrs. Cain had 
begun to assist the sick and suffering in addition to her 
other arduous labours, and she hailed with thankfulness 
a trained fellow worker. The Kois are the remnant of 
a timid race of hill-people, living above the Godaveri 
river. The women quickly responded to the kindness 
and skill bestowed on them ; but although the Mission 
was primarily established to give the Gospel to the 
Kois, by far the greater number of converts are of other 
races, Hindus, Mahommedans, and the classes lower 
than the castes. A widely open door was thus set 
before our Missionary, who for fourteen years laboured 
lovingly among them, until 1899, when ill-health 
compelled her to return home. Miss Frolich has suc- 
ceeded her in the work, living in the Mission bunga- 
low with Mrs. Dowling, an Australian lady who has 
been doing valuable work for years, although not 
formally on either the C.M.S. or C.E.Z.M.S. roll. 

From Mrs. Cain's pen, and not from her own, we 
learn what valuable work Miss Graham was enabled to 
do by God's grace. Writing to our Clerical Secretary, 
in 1889, Mrs. Cain says : — 

" God has been so wonderfully gracious in helping 
Miss Graham in many difficult cases. The different 
patients come with all sorts of diseases, especially the 
superstitious Kois, who think that the ancestral spirits 
wander over the hills with their guns and bows, shoot- 
ing at their enemies with invisible bullets or arrows, 



252 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

very terrible in their effects. These cases usually turn 
out to be inflammation of some acute kind. Some 
patients are said to be possessed with demons, for 
which, before the Dispensary was opened, they thought 
there was no medicine. 

"A young- Brahmin, whose brother had been 
frequently visited and treated when ill by Miss Graham, 
remarked to a native pastor, ' Now, at any rate, I 
believe the Christian religion to be the true one, for 
what but a great power could make that lady take 
so much trouble over our family? It is wonderful.' 

" Miss Graham's room is next to the Dispensary, 
and people come at all times of the day. In the night, 
too, when anything bad is the matter, we hear a voice 
crying :— 

" ' Amuia, Amma (mother, mother), we have 
brought a sick man ' ; or, 'A child is ill, we think it is 
cholera ' ; or, ' My child cannot breathe ' (croup per- 
haps). 

" The Dispensary has made wonderful opportun- 
ities for preaching, and when we think of the difficulty we 
had in getting people to listen when we first came up, 
and the numbers who come now, we cannot but 
rejoice, though the seed sometimes seems very long in 
bearing fruit. Last year there were over 3,000 patients 
at the Dispensary. Think how many that means who 
have heard something of the Gospel. For people 
seldom come alone, and sometimes many relatives will 
accompany the patient." 

In igoi the number of patients at the Dispensary 
rose, during the unhealthy season of the year, to 1,000 
a month. 

Miss Graham recalls her work thus : — 

" I used to try, with rather poor success, to per- 
suade the people not to come to the Dispensary before 
g a.m., except in the hot season. Often, in the morn- 
ing, I visited m distant villages cases that had been 
represented to me as serious. As, for instance, when a 



PATHS OF PAIN 253 

Kois came to tell me that someone had been crushed 
by a bandy, and assured me that the injured one was as 
flat as his hand. Sometimes, as in this case, my relief 
was great on finding that anxiety to induce me to come 
had led to a good deal of exaggeration. 

" In the largest village, Dummagudem, about a mile 
distant, I sometimes visited about half a dozen houses 
in a morning. Until mid-day there was generally 
work at the Dispensary, treating patients, talking to 
them or other visitors, preparing stocks of medicine, 
&c. In the course of the afternoon or evening, or both, 
there were generally some more stragglers at the Dis- 
pensary. Sometimes there was night work. 

"Although there is still plenty of prejudice as to 
the treatment of disease, it is decreasing, as was 
evidenced in the last outbreak of cholera, when the 
applications for medicine were numerous, in contrast to 
a previous epidemic, when they were comparatively few. 

" The Kois women used to be very shy ; now they 
have so much confidence in the Missionaries that they 
will come from considerable distances for treatment. 
One such was a young woman who was in constant 
misery owing to a tumour on her forehead. I was very 
unwilling to interfere with it, and tried hard to per- 
suade her to go to the little Government Hospital, 
fourteen miles away, and near her own home. But she 
so absolutely refused that I felt I should have to do my 
best, and I was very thankful that I succeeded in 
removing it." 

The Dispenary was built by donations from 
Australian sympsthisers, and up to the present time all 
the cost of drugsa has been met by donations from the 
same Colonies, and grants from the S.P.C.K. 

When, in i8gg, Miss Graham was obliged to 
relinquish her much-loved work, the native Christians 
spontaneously presented her with an address, of which 
the following extracts have been translated by one 
of themselves : — ■ 



254 Between life and death 

" Madam. — You came to this place in November, 
1893, and have ever since treated us with great regard. 
But now it makes us very grieved to see you ready to 
go back to your native country. You really had no 
rest for many days during the last live years, and you 
neglected your comforts in trying to look after our 
comforts. We feel highly pleased with your conduct, 
and now render to you our many grateful thanks. 
When non-Christians came to the Dispensary for 
medicine, you not only gave them medicine to cure 
their bodily diseases, but also informed them, in a 
manner pleasing to them, of their spiritual disease 
of sin, the great danger to which they were thereby 
made liable, and the Heavenly remedy wherewith to 
cure it. . . . It is impossible to describe your 
kindness in having no care for your own hunger and 
thirst, treating the poor sick people who came to 
the Dispensary as if they were your nearest relatives, 
inquiring about their welfare and complaints, and 
giving them, not onl)^ the medicine they required, but 
also the things needed for their diet, as well as clothes, 
if they were really in need of them. . . . We 
request you to remember us always in your prayers. 
May God be with you ! " 

Khammamett, a daughter Station of Masulipatam, 
has long needed a Christian lady doctor resident among 
its suffering and neglected women. Miss Wells, who, 
as a trained nurse, has been able to treat thirty or forty 
cases a day at the Dispensary, which she opened while 
at work in India, has again and again re-iterated 
the plea for a fully-qualified lady physician and 
surgeon. Where major operations would perhaps save 
life, they cannot be attempted except by a qualified 
practitioner. In i8g8 Miss Wells wrote : — 

" I do plead with you for a medical lady for the 
Mahommedan women here. Zenana work among 
them is increasing, and they will never turn us out if 
our medical aid is skilful. I am only a nurse, and 



PATHS OF PAIN 



255 



though I can do something, I feel it is really wrong to 
attempt cases which need a good probationer's skill. 
Therefore I have to leave them alone . . . and 
many opportunities are lost of getting into houses 
which would be open in no other way." 

The nearest Gosha Hospital is a tiresome, expensive 
journey for the wealthy, and for the poor an impossibility 

The people's superstition and ignorance is well 




Miss M. Longmire, M.B., Ch. B, Clas. 

evidenced by their proceedings on a terrible outbreak 
of cholera in 1897, succeeding a severe famine. Worn 
out by the preceding months, the inhabitants of 
Khammamett fell an easy prey to the epidemic. The 
goddess MaJialiiksini was said to have visited the town, 
and demanded her bandy full of victims. Consequently 
the people at first made a great iaiuasJia, i.e., show, pre- 



256 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

tending that they were pleased at the honour she had 
done them by coming among them. But as the cholera 
spread, they offered the goddess innumerable sacrifices 
— goats, fowls, and pigs — hoping to appease her. In 
the little town, on one day alone, it was said that 1,200 
animals were offered. The most cruel device per- 
formed was to stick live pigs on spikes of wood outside 
the small temples, and leave them either to squeal to 
death or to be eaten by hungry dogs. Malialuksuii, 
after a six weeks visit, promised to go away for a time, 
and her departure was celebrated with an even greater 
taiJinsha than her arrival had been. The Hindus made 
a clay image, fixed it in a decorated cart, and with a 
great procession took it down to the jungle. There 
they smashed the image, stamped upon it, and came 
back to the town to spend the night in feasting and 
drinking, with the result that cholera broke out more 
severely than before. 

Miss Wells witnessed many cases where the 
"medical " plough first furrowed the soil which became 
good ground for the seed of the Kingdom. We have 
space only to mention one such case, described in Miss 
Wells' own words : — 

" A low caste woman, from a village near b}', came 
to me for some medicine for her baby. She seemed so 
interested in the Bible lesson that I told her she might 
come any day, even when baby did not need any more 
medicine. For two months she came nearly every day 
and went regularly to church. . When she returned to 
her village, she did not forget what she had learned in 
Khammamett, and, soon, both Subbacuma and her 
husband became, first, open inquirers, and then cate- 
chumens preparing for baptism."' 

Miss Blandford, in her recent book, The Land of the 
Conch Shell, has shown how interesting a sphere of 
labour is spread before the Christian woman Missionary 
in that remarkable Native State of Travancore. 

Visits to Hindu houses and village work among the 



PATHS OF PAIN 257 

poor soon convinced her of the duty of doing something 
for the sick and suffering. 

Trevandrum, the capital of Travancore, is not an 
especially unhealthy Station, although subject to 
epidemics of small-pox and cholera, which spread 
rapidly. But, as yet, medical science is practically 
unknown, and the sick are at the mercy of untaught 
native doctors, whose great remedy for disease appears 
to be starvation. 

Miss Blandford was enabled, through the kindness 
of the present Maharajah, to erect a temporary 
Hospital eleven years ago. It was merely a large 
house, made of bamboo matting framed in wood, its 
bamboo rafters thatched with dried leaves of the cocoa- 
nut palm. But it was a great boon to the suffering 
women and children who were admitted, and for 
whom, in the absence of a Mission doctor, a native 
apothecary prescribed. 

There was some difficulty at first in persuading 
patients to stay long enough to effect a cure, but, by 
degrees, prejudice and fear alike vanished. Eight 
years ago, Miss Beaumont, a qualified lady doctor, 
educated in Madras, joined the Mission, and the 
success of the medical branch was assured. Upwards 
of 12,000 old and new out-patients would repair to her 
in a year, and, whilst waiting for consultation, would 
hear the Gospel message through a faithful old Bible- 
woman, who has only just gone Home to the Saviour 
she loved so well. Low caste people in such numbers 
pleaded for surgical and medical relief, that the matting 
house had to be turned into a Dispensary, and the 
workers resolved to build a small Hospital for in- 
patients in another part of the compound. 

Contributions from the Maharajah and native 
gentry, and private gifts from friends at home, enabled 
the building to be erected free of cost to the Society, 
and a neat, convenient Hospital has been erected at a 
cost of only about £"266. His Highness the Maharajah 

S 



258 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



opened the institution on July 24th, 1900, free of debt. 
The centre ward contains six beds with iron spring 
mattresses sent out from England ; two others in 
isolated rooms ; and at one end is an operating room, 
divided by an arch from a smaller one in which 

anaesthetics may 
be administered. 
At the other end 
of the main ward 
are bath and 
other rooms. All 
cooking will be 
done in a separ- 
ate building, to 
which a store 
room is at- 
tached The 
f ro n t has a 
good verandah, 
supported b y 
wooden pillars 
painted dark 
red, and the 
roofs o f both 
buildings are 
tiled. The Hos- 
pital is in a 
healthy situation 
and has been 
specially de- 
signed by the architect and a friendly doctor 
(both of whom gave their services gratis) accord- 
ing to modern theories of sanitation. The build- 
ing has been erected on an unusually solid founda- 
tion, and great pains have been taken to render it 
strong, lasting, and attractive. 

Before the Hospital was in working order, a 
Brahmin woman, in great suffering, begged so hard to 




South Indian Girls. 



PATHS OF PAIN 259 

be taken in that Miss Beaumont could not refuse her. 
Day by day, with God's blessing on skilful treatment, 
the patient improved, until she walked out of the build- 
ing in perfect health, and with deepest gratitude that 
such a place for women of her caste had been provided. 
How far she really accepted the truth it was difficult to 
say, but she would constantly repeat what she had 
learned for the first time in the Hospital about the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

Miss Blandford has returned this autumn for 
another period of service in India, after her long 
sojourn there of thirty-nine years ; and until her arrival 
the Hospital work was not in full swing. But in the 
autumn of igoi, Miss Beaumont wrote home that she 
was having as many as 140 patients in one day at the 
Dispensary, and had to send about twenty away, as she 
was quite exhausted, and could not " think very clearly 
after seeing that number." She is quite single-handed, 
and has only the help of a native nurse and two com- 
pounders, all trained by herself. 

Trichur is an important town and Mission in 
Cochin, and stands at the head of the chain of canals 
and backwaters which run down the west coast as far 
as Tre\'andrum. The native State of Cochin is under 
British protection, and is a might}' stronghold of 
Brahminism, and Trichur is its most sacred city, its 
very name implyingthat it is '" the country of the Holy 
Siva." 

Into this city Miss Coleman and Miss E. Coleman 
quietly entered in 1881, bearing their Master's twofold 
commission to heal and to teach, Miss E. Coleman 
taking up the Medical Mission, and her sister the 
Zenana visitation. 

At the little Dispensary at once opened, over 1,400 
pr.tients attended during the first year. Numbers went 
away healed, carrying Scripture leaflets in their hands, 
and the echo of " wonderful Words of Life " in their 
hearts. Suspicion gradually gave way to wonder, and 



26o BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

wonder to welcome. Homes, otherwise inaccessible, 
were thrown open to the Missionaries. A native lady 
of high caste, but very poor, could get no native treat- 
ment for lack of money wherewith to pay for it. She 
heard, from a friend, of the Trichur Mission fifty miles 
away, and travelled thither to be cured. Her recovery 
gave the Bible-woman entrance into many houses of 
the lady's friends and relatives in the cit}'. 

In 1892, small-pox and cholera broke out, and in the 
out-station, crowds, clamouring for medicine, would 
besiege the Trichur Missionaries. The courage of the 
native Bible-women was put to the test and never 
failed, since they would fearlessly go into houses where 
three or four persons were stricken down with cholera, 
doing kindly deeds and speaking words of holy cheer. 

Very remarkable spiritual results have taken place 
in connection with the medical ministry in this place. 
Four of the Bible-women, all high caste heathen, first 
came to the Dispensary for treatment, and then placed 
themselves under Christian instruction in the Converts' 
Home, where they trained to become faithful winners 
of souls. 

In the Trichur Schools there are now seven trained 
Christian teachers, all of whom were brought as 
young children by their mothers who came to the 
Missionaries for medicine, and afterwards forsook their 
idols for Christ. Prior to this, it had been impossible 
to obtain Christian teachers for the children. 

As many as 4,000 patients are treated annually 
still, and itinerating medical work is carried on in the 
villages with good result. On one occasion, a Namburi 
Brahmin who had " greatly withstood '" the Mission- 
aries' words and work in one of the villages, asked 
if the missionary could give him any medcine for his 
eye which had troubled him for a long time, and to 
which native remedies had been applied in vain. 

" I gave him some medicine," says Miss V^. Cole- 
man, ''which quite cured the eye. He was so pleased 



PATHS OF PAIN 261 

that he never opposed us again, but would receive the 
tracts we offered him, ar,d on one occasion he asked 
for a Gospel, saying that he wanted to know more than 
the tracts taught him." 

From India we turn to Ceylon. Dr. Samuel Green 
devoted many years to arduous labour among the 
Singhalese, that remarkably interesting people, not 
only treating many thousands of sick folk, translating 
many medical books, and training native doctors, 
but winning many hearts to accept Christ as Saviour. 
We cannot trace all the work being carried on to-day 
in the island as a result of his labours; but our special 
aim is to sketch Medical Mis ions among women as 
carried on by the C.E.Z.M.S in its Gampola Village 
Mission, humble, though they necessarily are, since no 
qualified doctor has }et been sent out through our 
Society, and the chief way of ministering to the sick 
has been by nursing. 

Often the kind, sympathetic Government doctor will 
be called in, and under his direction the Missionaries 
will nurse the sick one, and, in doing so, open the door 
of entrance for the Gospel into many hearts. 

In 1897, Miss Evelyn Karney opened a small 
Dispensary, which quickly was besieged by women 
sufferers of all ages, as many as thirty-five attending 
on one day ; and immediately it was the means of 
opening doors for the Gospel. Here is a typical 
instance, given in Miss Karney's own words. 

"A baby was almost dying of dysentry, and the 
doctor seemed to think its death imminent, but directed 
me to use very strong measures. We brought the baby 
to the bungalow, and, though we worked hard indeed 
at the medical part, I think prayer was even more used 
as a means of its recovery. The poor villagers came up 
and begged us to pray, and we all knelt down in 
the verandah and pleaded for the little life. Our 
prayer was granted, and when the wee mite recovered, 
the news spread that it was not medicines that cured 



262 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the child, but prayer. Through that baby two villages 
were caused to receive us with open arms. The village 
the baby comes from gives us a loving, appropriating 
welcome every time we go, and the father, I feel sure, 
truly believes in Christ, though he has not yet owned 
Him as his Saviour." 

Superstitious and idolatrous rites are performed by 
the Singhalese with as much fervour as their Indian 
and Chinese neighbours exhibit. A woman, wasted and 
worn with fever, will present herself at the Dispensary 
for relief. A fever-powder is given to her, and she is 
told to rest and keep warm. Later on in the day, how- 
ever, the powder is sent back. Just as the sick woman 
was about to take it she saw a lizard — a bad omen — 
so she has returned the dangerous concoction ! So 
tortured with the dread of " ill-luck " are these other- 
wise intelligent people. 

Devil worship and ceremonies are supposed to be 
efficacious, and parents of sick children will expend 
their energies upon them, while the little patients are 
neglected, or made to take the most nauseous potions. 
One of the ceremonies of devil worship is to take a 
cocoa-nut, squeeze out the milk, and mix blood with 
the remainder, which is offered as a propitiation for 
the sick. 

A remarkable incident took place in the winter 
of 1898-g. Fever broke out in Murak- 
dinia, some distance from Gampola, a 
train journe}', and then some miles over 
what native waggoners describe as a 
" bullock-eating road."' Miss Karney 
at once set off to the village, and 
spent the Christmas-tide in minister- 
ing to hve patients in the one little 
mud hut which serves as a girls' 
school. There, with onl\' a woman 

Miss E. Karney. ^^ j^^jp ^^^ ^ .^j^^| ^^ ^^^J^^^ gj.,^ Stayed 

until the women were out of danger. Such an act 




PATHS OF PAIN 263 

as this was sufficient to break down the people's violent 
prejudices, and they became eager for the medicines 
given in God's Name. On Christmas Day, when 
our Missionary was walking through the fields, people 
were brought out from different villages, and laid by 
the roadside for her to treat. 

The misery and neglected condition of the people 
when sick appalled the European Missionary, and by 
her urgent request, the Government afterwards sent a 
dispenser there. He was a Buddhist, however, and at 
first the hearts of the Missionaries sank as they felt 
their spiritual work might be undone. However, it 
quickly transpired that he was a young man for whom 
the Christians at Gampola had specially prayed, and 
who had long been under Christian influence. He 
went to Murakdinia, and gave out the medicine in 
God's Name and with prayer, and, in a few months, 
had successfully treated as many as 200 patients. In 
the end, God led him to Himself. 



CHAPTER X 

THE DOUBLE CURE 

or 
Hospitals ami Dispensaries in China 

The world needs nothing so much to-day as the Hfe and love 
of Christ poured through human hearts and hands upon lives that 
are bleak and bare .... more living Christians with the 
mind of Christ, who will go about among men and repeat the lowly, 
blessed ministry of Christ Himself, giving themselves in personal, 
self- forgetful service.—/. R. Miller, D.D. 

NOWHERE more strikingly than in China do 
spiritual results quickly follow temporal benefit 
derived from a Medical Mission Dispensary or 
Hospital. 
It is true that paroxysms of fear, and distrust, and 
suspicion seize the people from time to time, but 
we have already pointed out reasons that account 
largely for fanatical outbreaks. On the other hand, 
those who have been treated, and especially those who 
have been received into the Christian Hospital, are 
living arguments for the beneficent results of the 
" foreign doctrine," and are potent agents for disarm- 
ing and breaking down the prejudices of the people 
against its followers. 

A remarkable cluster of spiritual con\erts, indirectly 
or directly brought to God through Medical Mission 



266 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



agency in the province of Fuh-Kien, is to be found 
among the Christian worshippers in Kien Ning city. 

The present Bible-woman and matron of the 
Women's Hospital, and her two sons, whose story we 
tell further on, were brought to Christ through the 
^mother bringing one of them, when sick, to the 
Hospital. Previously, her terror at the idea of 
foreigners would have prevented her from coming near 
them, or giving herself one chance of hearing the 




On the River Mln. 



Gospel. Through this woman, a whole family related 
to her were brought in — father, mother, and two 
daughters, now all steady Christians. Another family 
were won for God through the mother coming to the 
Hospital as a patient, and yet another by the recovery 
of a child's sight. A Kien Ning Mission schoolboy, 
converted while in the C.M.S. Hospital, has been 
steadfastly witnessing ever since in his heathen home ; 
and another, with his sister, became a Christian owing 
to the sister and a younger brother being in-patients of 
the C.E.Z. Hospital, while one of the steadiest 
worshippers is a woman who first heard the Truth 
through the " Teaching Sisters," as the people call our 
lady Missionaries. 

The native Hospital on the Island of Nantai, oppo- 



268 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 




site Foochow, three miles outside the City Wall, built 
by the Commuuity people, has become virtually a 
Mission Hospital. Dr. Rennie, the physician-in- 
charge, gives the two C.E.Z. Mission- 
ary nurses full scope for influencing the 
patients. Every evening now there is a 
service for men in the chapel, and for 
women in the ward. The Dispensary, 
too, has become a Medical Mission, 
Pathetic stories of hearts yielded to 
God are narrated by Miss Barr, in her 
little book, Lin<j!; and licr Friend, and 
she remarks that the light of the 
Gospel becomes so rellected in the 
Miss Barr. faces of the converted Chinese that 
" it is always possible to pick out a Christian." 

The late Mrs. Robert Stuart collected funds to 
build the Ahok Memorial Wing for women, and this is 
an especially interesting sphere. In 1897, God's hand 
of blessing was especially laid upon the quiet work 
which the Missionary nurses were carrying on, and 
seven or eight were preparing for baptism. 

The number of women patients this same year 
increased by 142. Better-class women than before 
came in, finding that separate little wards could be 
allotted to them. Among the students, six came out 
boldly on the Lord's tide, and w^ould testify at the 
little weekly meeting, which, begun in the Guniong's 
sitting room, soon filled the little chapel holding 100. 
In 1898, Miss Chambers wrote : — 
" We have had much to encourage us in our work. 
Our Hospital students continue to grow in grace and 
in earnestness. It is splendid to see the way in which 
they hold up (Christ to the people, and tiieir knowledge 
of the Bible often surprises me. Recently there have 
been four especially interesting baptisms in the \illages. 
A village w^oman and her husband, the woman having 
first heard the Gospel in the Hospital ; a bright young 



THE DOUBLE CURE 26q 

boy, who, we hope, may be a preacher some day, and 
the wife of one of our students, converted from 
heathenism in our Hospital." 

In July, 1901, the workers had the sorrow of losing 
the native Christian House Surgeon, Dang Hok Ling, 
after a few days' illness. His life and teaching had 
been greatly blessed to students and patients, and " he 
being dead, yet speaketh." 

" A prayer and dream of years '' has been the 
establishment of a C.E.Z. Hospital in Foochow City, 
which is now an accomplished fact, many friends having 
contributed towards it. In iSgg a large native house 
opposite the C.E.Z. M.S. headquarters in the city was 
secured, the situation being excellently convenient for 
our workers. This house was wonderfully capable of 
adaptation to meet the requirements of a Hospital, 
and to provide good accommodation for an English 
lady doctor. 

" Long ha\-e we waited,'' says Miss A. B. Cooper, 
"for an English doctor, although work was begun in a 
small way by Daik Hok, a student trained at the 
American Hospital, and, later on, a C.E.Z. M.S. lady 
doctor, unable, for a time, to return up-country, 
resided temporarily in Foochow, and was able to do a 
great deal. But now (1901), a doctor for Foochow 
City Women's Hospital is, we hope, an accomplished 
fact, and we hope shortly to welcome her arrival." 

The special object of this Hospital in the city has 
been to receive high-class women who would not so 
gladly go to an ordinary Hospital, even were there 
room to take them. The population of Foochow being 
enormous, this new branch of work is, not only 
necessary, but very important as an agency likely to 
further, in a remarkable degree, the spread of the 
Gospel. 

x4t present only out-patients can be treated, but 
when the out-patient department was opened by Miss 
Mead, with the native medical student, Daik Hok, in 



2 70 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

September, 1899, as many as eig'hty-five patients came 
during the first fortnight. 

The two-fold healing of the women of Lo Nguong 
City, two days' journey from Foochow, began by a 
little amateur medical work by Miss Marion Hook, on 
her visits to the people. But, in 1896, she was able to 
develop this work so much that she started a little 
Dispensary, on Tuesdaj^ and Friday afternoons, at the 
West Gate, and at the old church near the South Gate 
of the city. The district of Lo Nguong^ then, was the 
only one in the Province where there was no medical 
work going on, either by foreigners, or native students 
trained in the Mission Hospitals. There was no 
doctor nearer than Foochow. 

Large numbers of women came and listened atten- 
tively to the Gospel message which always preceded 
the prescribing and dispensing. Many came great 
distances. During the first four months Miss Hook 
" doctored " about 1,000 sick people. 

The fame of the Dispensary spread through the city, 
and invitations to the Missionaries came from some of 
the best houses, while wives of mandarins and women 
of the upper classes visited them. Twice Miss Hook 
was asked to go to the Yamen of the head mandarin to 
prescribe for the Tai-tai, or first wife, who had been 
suffering for twenty years from an ulcerated mouth, so 
that eating and drinking caused great pain. By God's 
blessing upon the simple remedies prescribed, the mouth 
healed up in a wonderful way, and other ladies of the 
Yamen, who had been ill, were successfully treated. 
As a natural result, these hearts, and many others, 
softened and opened to the Gospel message lo\ingly 
proclaimed and practically demonstrated before them. 

]Meanwhilc, in 1895, the Station of Uong Buang 
was opened, four hours' journe}' froni Lo Nguong City, 
and amateur medical work \\eis begun there also, the 
women flocking to Miss Hook and Miss Cooper for 
relief whenever they visited the place. This continued 



THE DOUBLE CURE 



271 




until the summer of that year, after which, owing to 
the sad massacre at Hwa Sang (see Behind the Great 
Wall), the Station was closed for eighteen months; but 
on resuming work, the need for medical relief to the 
suffering women of the district became more and more 
emphasized. 

Miss F. Cooper, L.S.A., the first fully-qualified lady 
doctor whom the C.E.Z.M.S. sent to 
China, and who went out to the Lo 
Nguong district to follow up this Medical 
Mission work already begun, describes 
her plan of medical itinerating very 
vividly : — 

" Before my sister (Miss Blanche 
Cooper) went home in igoo, we took 
itinerating trips together. We started 
off in chairs, accompanied by our Bible 

di- „ 1 J „f Miss F. Cooper, L.S.A. 

coolies, carrymg one load or 

medicine and another of clothes and books. We sent 

placards on before us, in true Chinese style, to 

whatever village we intended to visit, stating the 

place and time of dispensing. 

" On arrival, we went to the central hall of some 
native house, and obtained the loan of a room leading 
from it. Then, placing a table a little in front of the 
doorway, we laid out some of our bottles. The Bible- 
woman collected the women who gathered round into 
the small room, and preached to them while they were 
waiting, while the catechist spoke to the men crowded 
into the hall. 

" After a short, preliminary Gospel address, I stood 
at the table, and, one by one, the patients came, paid 
their fee, 20 cash (equivalent to ^d. in English money), 
and received their medicine. 

" Now that the first great excitement of having a 
foreigner in the city who ' knows diseases ' has passed 
away, it is very difficult to persuade the women to come 
to a city Dispensary. They either cannot or will not 



272 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

leave their houses. They will send their husbands or 
brothers to describe their diseases for them, but this 
does not help us to ^^et hold of their souls ! It is not 
etiquette for women to walk through the streets, and it 
is too short a distance from their homes to warrant 
hiring a chair. We hope by opening a Hospital from 
which men will be excluded to overcome their preju- 
dices and these obstacles. However, we visit and pre- 
scribe for them in their homes, both in the country and 
the city. 

" At one heathen village, we set up our Dispensary 
in the middle of a block of houses, and then we had a 
crowd of women. Arriving late in the evening, we had 
a good time with them, teaching and praying. The 
next morning, before six o'clock, we were aroused by 
some of the women tapping at our door, crying, ' I 
want to have my pulses felt ! ' " 

As a preliminary step towards getting hold of the 
women, men-patients have, sometimes, to be pre- 
scribed for by the Missionary doctor. A young man, 
from a village seven miles from Uong Buang, came to 
consult Dr. Cooper for a badly poisoned hand. On his 
recovery, he invited the ladies to his village, and 
obtained for them a quiet hearing from a crowd of 
women, who afterwards led her to see sick relatives, 
whom they lovingly pointed, for the first time, to the 
Great Healer. 

The much-needed Hospital for in-patients in 
Lo Nguong, although completed in July, igoo, could 
not be in working order until this autumn, on account 
of the withdrawal of the lady Missionaries from all 
Stations in Fuh-Kien, except the treaty port, Foochow, 
owing to the Boxer riots. Dr. Florence Cooper sailed 
this autumn (igoi) to take charge of it, Miss Lamb, a 
trained nurse, following her in January. 

The Hospital is planned and built in native style, 
except that ventilation and cleanliness are provided for! 
The building, raised two feet from the earth, is built 



THE DOUBLE CURE 273 

around four sides of a central court, in which will 
be flowers, bamboo trees, and a well, in course of time. 

The wards are all small, the largest containing only 
six beds ; but twenty patients can be comfortably 
accommodated, and the Hospital can be easily 
enlarged at any time. A \'erandah on three sides 
of the building keeps the wards cool, and provides 
a delightful place in which the women may lie or sit. 
This style of building secures perfect privacy to the 
women from the gaze of outsiders, and will remove 
their fear of being seen by men, which might deter 
them from entering the Hospital. 

At Sa-Iong a small Dispensary was opened by Miss 
C. Baker, in i8g8. Women from the Women's School 
took it in turn to keep the door of the consulting room 
(that the patients might not follow their inclinations of 
storming the Guniong all together), and to preach 
Christ to the waiting crowd. As a result of this work, 
one village, which was hotly opposed to " the 
Doctrine,", admitted two Christian teachers, and 
allowed them to give their testimony in every shop 
in the place. 

One poor woman travelled eighteen miles to the 
Dispensary to have some terrible abscesses in her heel 
dressed. Her family were all heathen, and she said 
that the Gospel had never been preached in her village. 
She proved a grateful patient, and a ready listener to 
the "old, old story," so sweet to ears that have never 
heard it before. " The words are good indeed," she 
would remark, " I will believe them." 

In 1899, when on an itinerating tour. Miss Codring- 
ton had a warm welcome at Doliong, a large market 
town, and a very anti-foreign place. This was chieth' 
owing to an act of kindness shown to a woman who 
had come to the Dispensar}' the}'ear before, and whom 
Miss Baker had passed on to the native Christian 
doctor in the city, who effected a cure, and also led her 
to Christ. 



2^4 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATM 

When, on Miss Baker's marriage, Dr. Mabel 
Pantin took up her work in December, 1899, she found 
herself, to use her own words, " in possession of a large 
and flourishing practice." 

" Miss Baker has done marvellously on the least 
possible amount of material. I found her using brown 
paper for oiled silk and string to fasten the dressings. 
Permanganate of potash might be had almost for 
nothing, and all her results with it were splendid. 
Though we had only an out-patient practice, we man- 
aged to take in, for a while, three resident patients." 

In June, igoo, the Medical Mission work stopped 
for nine months owing to the Boxer insurrection, and 
" call down " of the ladies ; but in 
March, 1901, Miss Hubbard re-opened 
the Dispensary at Sa-Iong, and Dr. 
Mabel Pantin was transferred to 
Kucheng, where a Dispensary was 
opened in the new Mission House of 
the C.E.Z.M.S. (built in place of The 
Olives, destro}"ed by fire). There, 
in the large compound, the Schools 
for boys, girls, and women, the I'ound- 
ling Home, and the foreigners, and, 
Miss M. Pantin. L.s.A. bcyoud it, thc Amcrlcan Girls' School, 
the Leper Asylum, the Christian Chinese, and the 
heathen public were a sufficient "round " to keep a 
doctor's practice from growing rust}-. 

Numbers of cases "came from far."" One took a 
two days" journey to see the foreign doctor; and even a 
mandarin, a veritable centurion, having rule over 100 
soldiers, came in his chair and paid the shilling fee for 
medicine to cure his disease, "no exalted complaint," 
remarks the doctor, naively, "but thc bronchitis of old 
age, pure and simple."" 

Dr. Pantin and her fellow workers are cherishing 
the hope that, before long, funds max- come in to build 
a Hospital in Ping Nang, that huge district — 400 miles 




THE DOUBLE CURE iy^ 

in extent, with its teeming multitude of unevangelized 
heathen — to which she has been specially appointed. 

At Dang Seng, Miss Dopping Hepenstal, though 
not a fully-trained nurse, found much that she could do, 
even while learning the language, to help the suffering 
women all around. In one month as many as two 
hundred patients came to her for relief. 

One woman, a complete heathen, declared that if 
the Guniong could heal her she would worship God. It 
was a very simple thing that was wrong, and in about 
a week she was cured. She immediately began to 
attend the service regularly, joined the weekly Bible 
class, and brought others with her. The Spirit of God 
had arrested and drawn her to accept the true doctrine. 

Kien Ning Prefecture is the central northern prefec- 
ture of the Fuh Kien Province. It is about the size of 
Wales, and contains seven counties, thousands of 
villages and countless inhabitants. Ten years ago 
there were not more than five women who could be 
reckoned as daughters of the King. To-day that number 
has increased ten-fold, and they are gathered in centres 
for worship and teaching in even the once bitterly- 
opposed Kien Ning City. Again we trace the beneficent 
influence of Medical Mission work. 

The beginning of women's medi- 
cal work among women there was by 
Miss Frances Johnson, a trained nurse, 
in temporary quarters at Nang-w^a, 
a day's distance from the city, while 
a branch of the C.M.S. Hospital was 
in that place. But when, in 1S94, 
that Hospital was moved to its present 
quarters a mile outside Kien Ning City, 
it was not convenient to have the mjss f. Johnson, 
patients in Nang-wa ; therefore, at first, some rooms in 
a house in the Hospital compound, which was built 
for the native employes of the Hospital, were arranged 
as a temporary Hospital for women. So many 




276 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATM 

patients, however, begged for admission, that steps had 
to be taken quickly to erect a new building. In 
answer to pra3'er, and without any special appeal or 
collection, funds came in. The first sum towards the 
great need was most unexpectedly forthcoming from a 
legacy of ;/^20 left by an old lady, " To be used for the 
Women of China," supplemented by £5 from a relative 
who had consented that the executors should apportion 
it to the Women's Hospital at Kien Ning. 

English and Irish friends do not need to be told 
how greatly blessed this little institution has been 
as the birthplace of souls. During the first year of its 
existence, eighty-one patients were admitted. Many of 
these are now witnessing for Christ in heathen homes 
in distant villages, where, but for them, the Light 
would not have penetrated for years to come. 

A brief description of the building and its work 
must follow. 

Our Kien Xing \\'omen's Hospital, " Seven Stars 
Bridge," is built on the highest part of the C.M.S. 
compound, which is situated on a hill, by the banks ot 
a broad river, about a mile outside the walls of Kien 
Ning. Between it and the city stretches a sandy 
plain, covered, according to the time of year, with crops 
of wheat, melons, or turnips. Along the riverside runs 
the road, southwards towards Kien Ning, and north- 
wards; to Kiang Si, and — if one followed it long enough 
— to Pekin ! It would probably take some months to 
go by that route ; nevertheless, in days gone by, before 
foreign steamers plied between Foochow and Shanghai, 
this was the only road between Canton, and South 
China generally, and North China. Even now it is a 
busy thoroughfare, affording plenty of \ariety and 
interest to the Hospital patients in the verandahs. 

Bands of soldiers, with trumpets braying, and red 
flags surmounted by a bunch of horsehair on spear 
points; mandarins in chairs, carried by four or five 
coolies, and attended by an escort mounted on ponies ; 



THE DOUBLE CURE 



277 



bridal and funeral processions ; farmers carrying their 
produce into the city, or bringing their purchases back ; 
wheelbarrows laden with bales of cotton cloth from 
Kiang Si, or with little girls to be sold as slaves ; all 
these contribute to a ceaseless stream of passers-by. 

Processions and wayfarers almost always stop to 
rest in the rest house at the gate, from which the 
Hospital gets its name, Five Li Rest House, or Seven 




Seven Stars Bridge Women's Hospital. Kien Ning. 

Stars Bridge (though the bridge is wanting !) and many 
turn in to see and hear, especially if there be a sound of 
singing in the hall of the C. M.S. Hospital near the gate. 
The situation is a very healthy one. A steep path 
leads up to our Hospital, a long, low building, crown- 
ing the hill. Higher ground rises further beyond, and 
a vast expanse of wild hill-side stretches away for miles. 
The back wall of the building is of earth, resting on 
a stone foundation : but as it is built on the side 
ot the hill the front is supported on wooden 
pillars. It has the appearance of being two-storied, 



2 78 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

but the lower part can only be used for stores of wood, 
and a wash-house. At one end of the women's Hospital 
there is one ward on the ground floor, holding five or 
six beds, and as it is quite separate from the other 
wards, it is often used for isolation purposes, or for 
a case in which the husband is nursing a sick wife, or 
for men visitors who come from a distance to visit their 
sick relatives. The Missionaries' own house is on a 
line with the Hospital, with a door between. 

There are nine wards, altogether, and as many as 
twenty-five patients can be received, although, hitherto, 
only fifteen at a time have been nursed. Seven small 
wards, 12ft. by 12ft., each holding two beds, open out 
from the central passage ; and the doctor's consulting 
room, where, also, medicines are dispensed and surgical 
dressings are performed. In the guest room, 24ft. by 
12ft., morning and evening prayers are conducted, and 
the women are assembled for service on Sunday, and 
teaching in the week da}-. On the side facing the river 
runs the verandah, a very favourite resort of the 
patients in fine weather. 

A staircase from the verandah leads down to the 
kitchen premises, the matron's kitchen and bedroom, 
and one small ward, used for patients who cannot 
easil}' walk up and down stairs. The steep hillside is 
a drawback to the Hospital, yet the site had to be 
taken from necessit}', and not from choice, no others 
being available, and the inconvenience is cheerfully 
borne by the workers. In the same spirit, too, they 
accept the disadvantage of the Hospital front door 
leading through the kitchen. As a matter of fact, it 
renders the Hospital homelike to the patients, who are 
comforted immediately upon arrival to find themselves 
in a kitchen ! and here, and in the small verandah out- 
side, where they may wash their clothes, all patients 
who are not too ill, and so compelled to stay in 
bed, may usually be found. 

The walls of lath and plaster are whitewashed with 



THE DOUBLE CURE 279 

a light-blue tinge ; the floors are stained and varnished 
so that they may be kept clean. The beds are 
wooden trestles and boards, furnished with wooden 
frames for mosquito nets, and straw mattresses, made 
of wisps of rice straw laid side by side, and laced with 
straw cords. As the mattress is several feet longer than 
the bed, one end is rolled up to form a bolster. Over 
this a straw mat is laid, and a thick, i^-inch quilt 
of cotton wool suffices for bedclothes. Each patient has 
her own little cupboard and chair ; and very often 
brings her own round leather pillow with her, or a 
sort of bamboo frame which acts as a pillow. 

The ordinary diet consists of rice and whatever 
vegetables are considered suitable. Those who can 
afford it bring their own rice. If they are well-to-do, 
they will buy any accompaniment that they fancy, and 
is allowable. But, as most of the patients are poor, 
they seldom bring anything but rice, and all other 
nourishment, such as milk (condensed), chicken or 
goat-mutton broth, and bovril, &c., have to be pro- 
vided for them. 

There is no caste in China, and very little class 
distinction. Most of the Kien-Ning patients are the 
relatives of farmers, and farming is considered a highly 
respectable employment. On one occasion, a lady of 
the mandarin class came in for opium cure. Although 
she kept chiefly to her own room, she would often chat 
with the other patients in most friendly fashion. 

The things W'hich strike the Chinese patients on 
entering the Hospital are, perhaps, the cleanliness, the 
peaceful atmosphere, and absence of quarrelling, and 
that the foreigners and native helpers do things for 
them which their own daughters would consider too 
menial or disagreeable. It is amusing to '"see the 
puzzled, watchful gaze at every turn and action which 
those new-comers give who have heard stories of the 
foreigners' atrocities, and have ventured in only 
because some relative has been cured, and has told 



28o BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

them it was quite safe to be in the Hospital. For 
a few days they do not cease to expect something 
terrible to happen, and keep a nervously anxious e3'e on 
the foreigners. But soon their confidence is gained, 
and they settle down, perfectly happy. " Why are 
you so afraid at first ? " the Missionary will inquire, 
and the reply will be, " The people of our village told 
us that, if once we got into this house, we should never 
come out again ; you would take out our eyes or collect 
our bones to make medicine of them." One cannot 
help admiring their courage under such possibilities ! 
The absolute honesty and truthfulness, the trustworthi- 
ness in every particular of the good little Bible-woman 
who acts as matron, is also a very great surprise to 
them ; for at first, together with the Hospital cook, she 
has to suffer from the suspicion of the patients. 
Heathen women, as a rule, never trust one another, 
but expect that everyone will pilfer when they get 
a chance, as they do among themselves. 

A day's routine in the Seven Stars Bridge Hospital 
has been sketched for us by Miss Johnson : — 

" After breakfast at 7.30 a.m., prayers are conducted 
by the Hospital matron in the guest room ; and at 
9 o'clock the patients who are able to be up gather in 
the Dispensary for medicines or dressings; after which 
we attend to those unable to leave their rooms, and the 
doctor comes to attend and prescribe for any special 
case. Then we go round the premises to see that all is 
clean, and the rest of the time until noon is spent 
in teaching the patients individually and collectively. 

" In Kien Ning, we ma}' remark b}' the wa\', we 
dare not venture on any very strict rules with regard to 
hygiene and tidiness, or we should have no patients 
come to us ! In our region the\- would not appreciate 
spring mattresses, or sheets, although these are used in 
Hang-chow and elsewhere. 

"Dinner is at 12 o'clock, followed by administration 
of medicine, and more teaching. LVequently, how- 



THE DOUBLE CURE 281 

ever, the patients have visitors in the afternoon, and 
then often there are good opportunities for sowing 
Gospel seed. Bands of women, from the neighbouring 
villages, like to wander all over the Hospital, and 
especially the foreigners' rooms ! If for any reason 
that part of the show is denied, it causes great 
disappointment, if not offence. Sometimes the visitors 
are very suspicious, and want to find out the under- 
ground caves where we bury the children that we kill! 
Or they wish to investigate the roof, for when they 
see a ceiling they think there must be a loft above, as 
in Chinese houses the rafters are always visible, unless 
there be a loft. 

" There are generally two of us at the Hospital ; one 
is in charge, and the other either studies, or visits in the 
city or villages with a native Christian woman all the 
afternoon. Sometimes both Missionaries are able to 
go together, leaving the matron Bible-woman in 
charge of the patients and guests. 

" ' Tea ' at 7 p.m. means, for the Chinese, 'rice'; 
after which the patients come to us for medicine 
again, and any treatment they require. The evening 
' medicine time ' closes generally with a free and easy 
social hour, and the children, of whom there are 
generally several, have great fun, to the amusement of 
the grown-ups, who sit or stand about, chatting 
merrily. We do not find that it lessens their respect 
for their teachers to discover that they can laugh and 
joke sometimes — iu measure, of course. It often tends 
to make the new-comers feel more at home with us, 
and to realize that we are not so unlike themselves 
after all. It helps us, too, to get at their inn^r 
thoughts and feelings, and to break dov\n prejudice 
against the foreigners. 

'' Evening piayers, at 8 p.m., generally last an hour. 
No patient has ever obj' cted to come, although they do 
not always kneel at first. Sometimes, after the 
address, we invite some of the Christian women who 



282 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

may be present to give a testimony which will be 
helpful to their heathen sisters. On Saturday evening 
we have a prayer meeting among our Chinese 
Christians. There is no difficulty in getting them to 
take part ; even children are quite willing to pray, and 
they find that these are real times of spiritual help. 

■'After prayers we go round the wards, to see and 
attend to those who cannot leave their beds, and, 
perhaps, to have prayer with them individually. The 
lamps in the Hospital are out generalh' by g.30 p.m. 

" Sunday is quite different from other days. 
Almost always the patients who can do so are quite 
willing to attend the Christian service, and file down in 
their special Sunday toilets, at 11 o'clock, to the hall 
of the Men's Hospital, fifty yards distant, \\hcre it is 
held. The women patients and their ' Teaching 
Sisters' have a special place assigned them, screened 
ofi" by curtains. ^'ery often a group of women visitors 
will come, too. In the afternoon we hold a simple 
service for our women in the Hall of our Hospital ; and 
in the evenmg we have hymn-singing, which, although 
the Chinese are not musical, they greatly enjoy. 

" Sometimes on Sunday we are visited b}- old 
patients who have begun to worship, and who come 
from, perhaps, two miles off — a long distance for 
Chinese women to walk." 

God vouchsafes His servants much success in their 
healing art. Some quite remarkable cures ha\e been 
effected in this little Hospital. 

A poor woman with a very sad stor}' came in not 
long ago. Her only child had died. Her husband, a 
gambler and a N-cr\- bad character, finding that she 
was threatened with epilepsy, sold her to another man, 
who, when he found he had been imposed upon with a 
bad bargain, beat the poor woman, and his mother did 
the same. She became paralyzed, and they then 
returned her to her parents. Her brothers brought her 
to the Women's Hospital, and her old, deaf mother 



THE DOUBLE CURE 283 

accompanied her and attended on her most devotedl}-. 
It was touching to see their affection for each other, 
and their gratitude for all that was done for them. 

She was truly a pitiable object. Paralyzed in the 
right arm and leg, and distorted in the face, suffering 
from epileptic fits, and unable to speak, or hear, or 
understand, she was carried in almost like a living 
corpse. The doctor despaired of even slight recovery. 
Yet, within a month, she had regained the partial use 
of limbs and senses, and in three months' time she was 
able to walk out of the Hospital, carr3ing her own 
belongings to the chair waiting for her. The Chinese, 
as well as the Hospital workers and patients, were fully 
convinced that her miraculous reco\erv was in answer 
to prayer. 

Although she spoke rather incoherently, and had 
not much intellect, at a very early stage she learned 
to say aloud, " God, Father, make my arm well," and 
gradually understood the meaning of forgiveness, and 
asked for it in prayer. It was very sad to know that 
she must go back to a life of trial, and probably unkind 
treatment ; yet a joy to realize that the imperishable 
seed of the Kingdom had been safely lodged in her 
sad heart. 

At present there are no nati\'e nurses ; no one yet 
suitable for training has come forward ; but it is hoped 
that the way may soon open to train the wife of a 
medical student. The Hospital Matron will often come 
on night duty and assists in nursing serious cases who 
have no relative, or only an incompetent one, to be 
with them. The Missionary-in-charge, Miss Frances 
Johnson, who is a qualified nurse, and her fellow 
worker. Miss Gardner, undertake the cases and 
treatment themselves. 

" We have great cause to be thankful to God," 
wrote Miss Johnson, m 1893, " for the treasure 
He has given us in our earnest and devoted 
Bible-woman. She throws herself heart and soul 



284 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

into winning souls for the Master. She loves the 
patients, and does things for them that are not 
reall}^ her work, and that no outsider would do for 
any money, and puts up patiently with all the trouble 
they frequently give her. She has a wonderful know- 
ledge of the Bible, and is very plain-spoken wit-h the 
patients in dealing with them spiritually, as a prayer of 
hers once showed, the subject of it being present. ' O 
God, change the heart of this woman from my native 
place ; she has been here three Sundays now, and her 
heart is as dark and as frightfully dirty as ever ! ' The 
patients never seem to resent it, but, on the contrary, 
she is beloved and respected by all who come in." 

In 1898 she was called up Higher, and entered into 
the joy of her Lord, leaving a gap behind hard to be 
filled. 

"If you heal this I vv'ill worship your God" is an 
every-day remark. Of course, such a motive is 
declaimed against; still, does it not show that the power 
of God is being recognized ? especially when the 
following is added : " We ha\'c tried the idols, and 
they are of no use." 

" Many come and go, and accept what is done for 
them as a matter of course, upon whom no apparent 
impression is made," says Miss Darley, who, in 1897, 
joined the Kien Ning workers, and she continues, 
" The reason for this in some instances may be that 
the ' sent ones ' are a little out of touch with their 
Sender, and therefore His life in them is not as brightly 
reflected as it might be. Oh, to enter with fu ler 
measure into the spirit in which Jesus said, ' I have 
compassion on the multitude,' for it is the fove of 
Christ which constraineth, and breaks into the dark, 
loveless lives as something wonderfully new and 
beautiful." Ikit there are many and constant testi- 
monies to the fact that this prayer, breathed in 
humility, is being richly answered. One or two 
incidents must suftice. 



THE DOUBLE CURE 2^5 

In the summer of igoo, an elderly woman (one of 
the last patients before the Hospital closed owing to 
the troubles in North China) was brought to Christ. 
Though disappointed by hearing that her complaint 
was incurable, she rejoiced that she had come to the 
Hospital to find spiritual healing. " If I had never been 
ill," she said, " I might never have heard about Jesus. 
In heaven I shall be quite well." As she had not had 
the test of a return to heathen surroundings, it was 
considered unwise to baptize her ; but in her house, 
two days' journey from the Hospital, the Catechist 
found her quite unshaken in faith, and glad for him to 
read and pray with her. She gave her relatives direc- 
tions that nothing idolatrous was to be done at her 
funeral, and that no priests were to be called in to 
conduct her soul through the purgatorial regions of 
the lower world ; but that she should be buried as a 
Christian. Her husband respected her wishes, and 
when two months afterwards she passed away, he 
invited the Catechist and Christians from the next 
village to bury her with Christian rites. 

A vivid light is thrown upon the dearth of labourers 
in the Kien Ning district, when we learn that in this 
case, only one out of many others, the convert could 
not ha\e the privilege of Holy Baptism. There is 
only one native ordained deacon in the district, and he 
is not authorized to administer Baptism, and the one 
European clergyman has charge of a district which 
takes at least four days to cross in each direction. 

One afternoon, only two years ago, a crowd might 
have been seen gathered round the door of a house in 
the suburbs of Kien Ning Cit3\ Inside, a woman was 
sitting covered with blood, which two or three medical 
students were trying to stanch as it tiowed from a 
deep gash in her arm down to the bone, and a cut in 
the side of her face. The bystanders were full of con- 
cern and surprise at the calm attitude of the patient, 
who uttered no cry or word of revenge, but, who, all 



286 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the time her wounds were being dressed, was urging 
the people to accept the Saviour. 

"Do not be sorry for me. I have no pain, no fear. 
God is so good to me. It is you who are to be pitied. 
If you would only believe and worship my God. Two 
years ago, when I was like you, I should have been 
terrified if this had happened, and should have cursed 
the man who tried to kill me, but now I am only sorry 
for him. I thought the next moment I should be in 
heaven ; all fear was taken from me." 

She had been on her way to a village to help in 
telling the Good Tidings, when she was attacked by a 
mad fanatic who announced that he had been com- 
missioned by some deity to murder those who were 
teaching the foreign doctrine. Happily, her life was 
spared, and she is more earnest than e\cr in seeking to 
lead others to the Saviour. But how was she herself 
brought to Christ ? Not quite three years before this 
incident she had passed along that same road, taking 
her sick child to the Hospital to try what foreign 
medicines could do, as a last hope, and in great terror 
of facing the foreigners. The child's life was restored, 
and the mother was spiritually awakened. Gradually 
the light broke in, revealing to her how many things 
in her life must be faced and changed ; but she was 
led " in triumph " through all. She delights in visit- 
ing, and is on lire to win others for Christ — her 
testimony is so bright and simple that it always makes 
an impression. Her elder son who, at first, opposed, 
is now as " hot hearted " as his mother, a very, bright 
and earnest Christian. 

One more instance of how the Word of God grows 
and multiplies through their much-blessed medical 
work by women amongst women in far Kien Nmg. 

A girl of eighteen was brought into the Hospital. 
She had never once heard the Gospel. Her heart was 
touched, and she begged her husband's consent to 
worship. His answer was, " Anything }ou like, so lung 



THE DOUBLE CURE 287 

as you get well." She unbound her feet as a 
testimony that she belonged to Christ ; and when 
jSIeng-Ngu returned home it was to lead such a 
truly consistent life, that an attentive interest was 
won for the Missionary's first preaching in ihat 
village where the young Hospital patient was the only 
Christian. 

So far there have been tew out-patients at the 
Hospital, but Medical Mission work is opening in 
villages around. Ciong Bau, about ten or twelve miles 
from Kien Ning City, is quite a small place, but a good 
centre for several large ones. Doctoring was carried 
on in a small way for a few months by one of our 
Missionaries, Miss Darley, during part of the time 
spent in learning the language. From the healing of 
some common complaints with simple remedies, a 
reputation grew which gave three to four hours of 
steady work in a day ; and here, too, there was the 
inevitable spiritual blessing, 

"If I worship God," said an old woman, "my 
daughter-in-law will scold me. She will cook me no 
dinner, and I shall not be able to live with her." But 
one day a terrible calamity overshadowed the house- 
hold. Someone whispered that the sore leg from 
which the daughter-in-law had been suffering for six 
years was leprosy. Then the "foreign sisters" were 
resorted to, and they decided it was neither leprosy nor 
yet incurable. 

"The joy in the girl's face," says Miss Darley, 
"when she found the dcdly dressing was to be under- 
taken for her, will not easily be forgotten. It was 
amusing and pathetic, too, to hear her relatives asking 
anxiousl}-, day after day, ' Is there pain yet ? ' (for 
there is no sensation in the part affected by leprosy), 
and then when the first feeling came, most heartily 
congratulating her. ' ^'ery many thanks, pain has 
come, foreign medicine good exceedingl3^' Before her 
full recovery, this patient had yielded herself wholly to 



iSS BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

the Saviour, and the old woman also worships, no 
longer hindered but encouraged by her people." 

It was not to be wondered at that Satan should 
not allow such a stronghold of bigoted superstition 
as Kien Ning City, and such a valuable territory as 
Kien Ning district, to be invaded by soldiers of the 
King of Kings without a struggle. During the spring 
of i8gg, the people began to be roused and maddened 
by awful reports of the foreign missionaries and their 
doings. The body of a murdered little boy was found 
outside one of the city gates, and the death was 
attributed to the foreigners, as also two were other 
murders which had taken place in the neighbourhood. 
The whole city and district became quickly seething 
with fear and hate, and rioting began. The mandarins 
soon proved unable to cope with the mob, and the 
Christian missionaries had to flee for their lives ; yet 
their testimony was of God's keeping them in perfect 
peace " from every shade of fear or unrest." At seven 
o'clock in the morning, after a night of uncertainty 
and suspense, not knowing whether or on which side 
the mission premises would be attacked, the ladies 
and some native women started for Foochow by 
boat, Miss Darley. in a private letter from Foochow, 
on July 19th, says : — 

" Oh, leaving was dreadful ! Dr. Kigg, Dr. Pciken- 
ham, and some of the students, standing on the beach 
helping us off with, humanly speaking, almost nothing 
between them and a violent death. And then leaving 
our deserted hospital, which, God has so blessed. 
Just as we were putting off there were shouts from 
the doctors, ' Hide yourselves inside,' and, sure 
enough, several boats out from the cit}" \\ere close 
upon us ; but we were going (piickly down the ri\-er, 
and the men only yelled at us. That night we got 
safely down to the Hospital at Yen Ping, where no 
rioting has yet taken place. We had to wait there till 
mid-day for another boat to take us on, and all that 



THE DOUBLE CURE 289 

morning boatloads of fugitives — Dr. Riggs' students' 
wives and children — came down from Kien Ning, each 
bringing a worse account, but each one, thank God, 
saying the same thing, " No fear inside ; heart all 
peace." 

Happily the Seven Star Bridge Hospital was not 
destroyed, although the City Mission House was fired 
and burnt out within a few hours of the outbreak. To 
Ur. Rigg's prompt and active organizing, under God, 
our Missionaries and the native Christian helpers owed 
their lives. 

Subsequently to this outbreak came the Boxer 
rising in North China, and the recall home of most of 
our China Missionaries. What an intense trial it was 
to them to leave their beloved people and desert their 
new converts, is partly gauged by those who have met 
them while on enforced furlough. Each one has 
echoed the words of a sister Missionary who wrote 
home thus at the beginning of the trouble : — 

" Will you do all in your power to keep this from 
turning anyone against our Chinese or against 
Missions ? God will reign in the North West yet. 
The work is His. He loves it a million times more 
than we can. The people have been worked up to this 
pitch from underneath — no one knows how. They are 
to be pitied, not blamed. They are genuinely afraid of 
us, so of course want to get rid of us by any means. You 
do not, cannot know, how we love the native Christians 
and how they love us. They are true, real friends. 
Some of them put us to shame. It is so hard to wait 
for news of them. It is the new ones who have had 
so very little teaching, and everything to hinder them 
for whom my heart most aches. Oh ! pray with all 
your might that this may soon settle down, so that we 
may go back as scon as possible ! " 

A fervent response to this pleading request came 
from the Church at home. During the memorable 
\ear 1900-igoi more prayer arose for China than in 

u 



290 



BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 



any previous twelvemonths ; and as we write, the out- 
going passages of our China missionaries have been 




Little Patients on the steps of a Mission Hospital. 

taken, and they are abont to re-occupy in Christ's 
Name territory that has been baptized and consecrated 
with the blood of a noble army of martyrs. 



CHAPTER XI 

NATIVE NURSES AND NATIVE 
NURSES 

The Training of Native Women 

" If Asia is to be won for Christ, it must be through Christian 
Asiatics." 

ALL that we have said in earlier chapters has 
surely gone to prove that our Heathen and 
Mahommedan sisters have little or no idea of 
nursing one another in times of sickness. They 
lie untended between life and death for all that they 
can do for each other in the wa\' of ministration ; and 
the patient, on her hard mat in a close, foul-smelling 
room or out-house, will usually be expected to do ever\' 
thing for herself, and to require little attention. One 
of the earliest duties of our Medical Missionaries is to 
try to instill into the women's minds some ideas of 
right treatment of the sick. 

In our sketches of the various C.E.Z. Hospitals 
and Dispensaries, we have merely touched lightly upon 
that most promising branch of our agencies, the train- 
ing of Native Nurses. In this closing chapter we will 
glance at it more fully. 

Again and again reference has been made to 
the assistance which is being given to our Missionaries 
in India by young Indian women, than whom, where 



292 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

fully equipped, no better agents can be found, and 
who, possibly, in time will supersede many European 
workers in the field. Much larger spheres will be open 
to them, and their influence and conduct must tell 
more powerfully with their countrywomen than that of 
the foreigner. When Hindu and Alahommedan women 
can have constantly before them women of their own 




On the River Min, Fuh-Kien, China. 



nation who are leading Christ-like lives, they will know 
that it is Christianity which makes the difference. 

But it must be remembered that this ideal state of 
things is still very far from being realised. A much 
longer, a more patient, as well as careful and strict 
training is necessary in order to make cnir Indian sisters 
as efficient as our own countrywomen. They inherit, as 
a rule, defects conspicuous in Oriental character which 
militate against accurac}-, promptitude, and activity. 
They have inherent faults and failings to overcome 
which are as binding upon them as second nature. 
Order and method are, not onl)- unnatural to the 
Eastern mind, but are difficult to be appreciated by it. 
Eor example, a young nati\'c nurse-in-training will 
assert that she has given a patient her medicine if she 
puts the powder into her hand, although she knows 
perfectly well that it was thrown away and was not 



NATIVE NURSES 295 

taken ; and an older woman, a matron, will listen to the 
nurse's statement, and not correct it. Yet, by God's 
j^race in the student's heart, and patient, firm training 
on the part of the European in charge, these faults can 
be and are being overcome. Not only are Indian 
women to-day efficient nurses, compounders, and 
druggists, but assistants and physicians, holding 
responsible positions, and carrying on successfully the 
work of two-fold healing among their countrywomen. 

Continually it is demonstrated that Indian woman- 
hood, under Christian influence, is able to be relied 
upon, not only for the routine work of the Hospital 
ward, but to meet the gravest emergencies. The say- 
ing is true, " It requires but the application of 
Christian truth to the heart, followed by thorough pro- 
fessional training, to make strong characters of any 
people." 

If lady doctors are required, and competent nurses 
and dispensers to assist them, who can be so well fitted 
for the task as the women of the country ? For they 
do not need to begin in mature life to grapple with 
a strange climate, an unknown language, and baffling 
social customs plus foreign modes of thought. 

One of the oldest and most important training- 
grounds for nurses is that at St. Catherine's Hospital, 
Amritsar. From that institution, young Indian medical 
evangelists have gone forth to be the right hand of 
many a AIissionar\- in the field.* 

As earl}- as 1884, the training of medical students 
began to proxe most successful. It was no small 
matter that <jf all the thousands of prescriptions made 
up, the ladies in charge of the work nexer had to dis- 
pense one themselves ; also that all Hospital stores, 
linen, dressing, and other routine work was entire! \- 
taken off their hands. These pupils were trained in 
all the habits and wavs of Missionar\' work and entered 

'This School for Medical Students has ceased to exist, and 
nurses only are receiving traininij at St. Catherine's. 



294 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

very enthusiastically into all efforts made to win and 
to teach the patients, taking their part in the Sunday 
School and in the daily reading and singing to in- 
patients, &c. Miss Hewlett wrote thus to friends at 
home in reference to this interesting and important 
development at St. Catherine's : — 




A Lesson in Compounding. 

" It cannot but be that native young ladies thus 
trained will find a very hearty welcome among their 
fellow-countrywomen, and we would ask the prayers of 
friends at home that their present and their future may 
be greatly blessed, and that they in their turn may 
train up others, and establish Dispensaries for the help 
and comfort of the women of India." 

We have seen and are constantly witnessing how 
these prayers and anticipations have been abundantly 
fulfilled. Yet all the " raw material " sent in subse- 
fiuent years to this training ground has not been of the 
finest calibre. In more than one case a girl was sent 
for training because "good for nothing else"; which 
expression, as Miss Hewlett dryly remarked, "so 
uncomplimentary to the noble profession of nursing 
would be rather trying for head lady nurses to hear, 
did they not know how very often ' good for nothing- 



NATIVE NURSES 295 

ness ' gets expelled by training and work." In 1900, a 
report could be given that several nurses had been 
passed on to work elsewhere, two of them being placed 
under Miss Basu, at Ajnala — Miss Basu herself having 
also been transferred from St. Catherine's early in the 
year. 

The value of such trained women helpers to the 
European lady doctor cannot be exaggerated. No one 
woman should be expected to undertake the duties of 
surgeon and physician, chloroformist, dispenser, and 
nurse combined. Besides this, her own labour and 
influence are multiplied enormously when her assistant, 
a nurse, is a sister thoroughly in sympathy with her in 
her desire to win the souls of their patients to Christ. 

Public sentiment in favour of women becoming 
medical students is being created and is an established 
thing in many of the cities of British India, and there 
are many girl students already in Medical Colleges. 
Lady Dufferin's Association's first aim is medical 
tuition, and her scheme is to train large numbers of 
women practitioners. But its avowed principle is 
philanthropic and not religious ; and missionary train- 
ing is cut off in all its institutions since it binds all 
associates not to speak to others on the subject of 
religion. Moreover, the atmosphere and surroundings 
of the students' boarding houses, mostly occupied by 
girls from homes where a low code of morals obtains, 
are undesirable. All honour to those Indian families 
of good position who, although non-Christian, hesitate 
to allow their daughters to study medicine in company 
with native men students, or to attend lectures given 
by native men. 

With the desire of educated Christian girls in 
Mission Boarding schools to adopt the medical or 
nursing profession, and to qualify themselves for Medical 
Mission work, the great need arose of a Christian 
Women's Medical College. For the companionship of 
Heathen and Mahommedan men and women students, 



296 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

together with the entire absence of all Christian teach- 
ing and influ£nce, resulted so frequently in moral and 
spiritual failure that few of those who entered the 
Government course of study were, after its completion, 
iit or willing to take up Mission work. And the heads 
of the large Christian girls' schools had come to the 
decision that they could not in future allow their 
students to accept scholarships at the Government 
Medical schools. 

In 1893, the idea of founding a Missionary School 
of Medicine in North India occurred to Miss Edith 
Brown, m.d., who has since been appointed as its first 
Principal. A permanent Committee was formed as an 
outcome of a conference of fourteen Medical Mission- 
aries, representatives of seven Missionary Societies. 
In 1894, the C.E.Z.M.S., in committee assembled, 
passed a resolution in which they cordially approved of 
the establishment of such an undenominational College 
for the training of women and girls, and although 
unable to give any grant towards it, were prepared 
to arrange for the payment of any students' fees whom 
they might from time to time send to the college for 
training. 

Ludhiana, as being the oldest scene of interdenomi- 
national Zenana work, was chosen as a site for the 
school. There is a large Hospital and Dispensaries, 
two of which are outhing, and the school itself is a large 
building in the Mission compound. Special contribu- 
tions came in, and the institution was launched amid 
the gifts of many friends, among whom the Missionaries 
themselves rank first — always the first to give ! Medical 
books and chemical apparatus came from the London 
School of Medicine for Women together with the 
promise of the gruesome, but indispensable, gift of a 
skeleton. The school started with se\en girls, all 
learning nursing, and bid fair to prosper. 

Since then the progress of the School has been ver)- 
rapid. The students are, not only thoroughly trained 



NATIVE NURSES 297 

medically by a competent staff of fully-qualified lady 
physicians, but they have regular Bible study and are 
prayerfully encouraged to become earnest and whole- 
hearted Missionaries, who will seek the salvation of 
their patients. The first Rule of Admission runs 
thus: — "Candidates must be decided Christians, and 
those holding Scholarships must undertake to work in 




A Ludhiana.StatT Nurse and her Little Patitints. 

some Protestant Mission to the Heathen after the 
completion of their course of stud}'." ^cjco' 

As many as forty girls are received at a time, and 
are being trained under five lady doctors and two 
English hospital-trained nurses, to become doctors, 
compounders, and nurses. The course for Hospital 
assistants covers four years, and that for compounders 
and nurses lasts two years. It argues well for the 
future to see these girls of different nationalities (for 
the students come from all parts of India) working so 
harmoniously over anatomy, physiology, chemistry, &c.,- 



2q8 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

and in the Hospital over dressings and other in-patient 
work. The course of instruction is given both in 
EngHsh and Urdu, but all the more educated girls know 
English very well. 

No fewer than fourteen students with various 
qualifications, and some having obtained Government 
diplomas, passed out of the School and were located 
in different Mission Stations during igoo, one being 
appointed to an important post as helper in connection 
with the C.E.Z.M.S. at Sukkur. 

There is every reason to hope that the students 
may soon have permission to enter the higher 
examinations in the Lahore University, the affiliation 
of the School being dependent on the accommodation 
for laboratories and the strength of its fully-qualified 
staff. 

Testimonies that are constantly coming to hand 
prove that this important movement is being crowned 
with success. Two of the nurses sent recently to a 
Mission Hospital are found able to do all the 
evangelistic work, holding classes and having prayers 
for the servants, and in the Hospital (which they keep 
in beautiful order) one of them taking the Bible 
reading for the doctor, who is not as yet so fluent in 
Urdu.* 

At present no such institution is established in 
China. Bnt although the difficulties are great and 
missionary effort in every direction is newer than in 
India, while necessarily British influence is wanting to 
strengthen philanthropic effort, the training of native 
women on medical lines by Missionary agencies is an 
established thing. Public opinion even in China has 
been created in favour of the medical profession for 
talented and enlightened women and self-supporting 
Chinese are taking up this department of work. 

* Full particulars of the North India School of Medicine will 
be supplied by the Secretary, Miss M. W. Brown, 120 St. James' 
Road, West Croydon, Surrey. 



NATIVE NURSES 299 

Several Chinese lady doctors have completed a course 
-of training and are practising professionally. 

Eleven years ago a Chinese lady doctor appeared 
at Amoy, started a women's hospital, and showed the 
blessings that such a worker could diffuse. After 
passing through a medical course in the United States 
and winning honours over many of her fellow students, 
she came to Amoy in the care of her adopted father, a 
\enerable American missionary. 

It can never fail to excite interest that Chinese 
women are able, through education, to use their minds 
for the details cf a study so long and so difficult to 
acquire as that of medicine and nursing. 

Miss Mary Stone, m.d., a native of China, whose 
story is extremely interesting, has uttered the following 
weighty words which we cannot do better than quote 
verbatim : — ^" What scientific i^nowledge of medicine a 
few Chinese have acquired has been through the 
agency of Medical Missionaries, who, in addition to 
their practice, ranging annually from thousands to tens 
of thousands of patients, can scarcely be expected to 
find time or strength for much in the line of teaching. 
Nothing is convenient for a course of 
laboratory training in China. In a country where 
ancestors are worshipped, one does not wonder that 
dissection is interdicted. ... In a country where 
women are not honoured, they are left to suffer untold 
miseries. In China there are women who would 
rather disease should run its course than call a man to 
treat them. 

"As we cannot hope for enough foreign lady 
Missionaries to supply the needs of our women, or to 
train a sufficient number of Chinese women to be 
thoroughly qualified physicians, the only solution 
seems to be to send a number of Chinese women abroad 
to be educated, making them competent for independent 
work anywhere in China, even where foreigners cannot 
go. . . . To pro\'ide the means for any number of 



300 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

Chinese girls to take such a course of study abroad, 
unless it be regarded as a legitimate field for Missionary 
effort, would require so much that I fear China will need 
to wait some generations yet for qualified medical 
women. , . . But do they (those trained in foreign 
countries) retain their connection with their own people, 
so that they are received in more intimate and more 
effective touch with the lives of the Chinese ? A few 
items of personal experience may be pardoned here. 
Our reception by our people has been a source of sur- 
prise and gratification in more than one respect. 
There has generally been a willingness to accept us and 
our work for what we could make manifest as true work. 
We are constantly brought in contact with great 
numbersof our countrywomen in a professional way, and 
;dl classes love to visit us at our Home, where we 
receive them and try in some way to speak a word or 
suggest an idea that will tell for Christian truth." 

After the foregoing statements in our little book 
which have depicted in measure the woes of Chinese 
womanhood, we need not here emphasize the fact of 
the comfort which one of their own sisters as a doctor 
or nurse can impart. An\one who understands 
Oriental life will take account of all this means, and 
fervently invoke blessing on those whom God is mani- 
festly raising up to minister to their countrywomen. 

Space does not allow of our dwelling longer on this 
extremely interesting and most important work — which 
in larger or smaller measure is being carried on in every 
one of the fort3'-four Hospitals and Dispensaries of our 
Society with equally blessed results. l)Ut may this 
sliglit sketch stir up much more definite ])rayer for 
trainers and trained, that our Eurasian, Indian, 
and Chinese sisters may be called and qualified by the 
(ireat Physician Himself in ever-increasing numbers to 
minister to multitudes between life and death. 



NATIVE NURSES 301 

Our sketch of Women's Medical Mission work 
amongst women is finished. It is at best an imperfect 
oiitHne of some only of the ministry that is being carried 
on by a noble army of healers that have gone forth into 
the battle which disease is waging in earth's darkest 
places. 

Yet, compared with the yast area occupied by 
the foe, how few are the warriors ! If 10,000 lady 
doctors went to India to-morrow, and another regiment 
of equal size were despatched to China, there is work 
— abundant, pressing work — for all in those two 
countries only. 

But let us ever remember that the real remedy for 
which millions of our suffering sisters are waiting to- 
day is, not Western science, or a specific from the 
laboratory, or the miraculous skill of the operating 
room. 

Their " open sore " in its deepest sense can 
never be healed by phial or lancet, or even tenderest 
human sympath}-. It waits for the touch of Christ. 
The w^ounds and bruises of their sin-stained hearts can 
be mollified only by the balm of the Gospel. That name, 
which is " as ointment poured forth," must be heard 
and know^n and loved and trusted if their cry of pain is 
to cease. A redeeming God Himself must impart 
" health and cure." JcJiovah-rophi is the unknown God, 
for a revelation of Whom the pain-worn, sin-sick women 
of the East wait. 

And He waits to re\eal Himself to them through 
those who give their feet to go, their eyes to see, their 
hearts to love, their hands to do, their time, their zeal, 
yea, themselves, to this Chri-t-like ministry of " pour- 
ing in oil and wine."' 

Christian woman, physician, surgeon, nurse, He 
waits {or yoii. 

Christian medical student, He waits hr you. 
Christian professional sisters the world over, He 
waits (or you. 



302 BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH 

" The paths of pain are thine. (jO forth 
With patience, trust, and hope, 
The SLifiterings of a sin-sick eartli 

Shall give thee ample scope. 
That Good Physician liveth yet 
Thy P>iend and (lUide to be ; 
The Healer by (^ennesaret 

Shall walk thy rounds with thee." 

*' God is no longer manifested in human form, 
j^oing in and out among our sick ones. The hand of 
Christ is no longer laid on the fevered brow. It is for 
your hand to do that now and reduce the fever by all 
the means within your power. His touch of the sightless 
eyeballs does not to-day restore vision. He has com- 
missioned you to do that with your cataract needle. 
The summer evenings, when the sick could be gathered 
at the door for the Master to heal, have sped away 
from the world's Capernaums ; He is seeking to-day 
for representatives who shall go in Christ's stead and 
do His healing work, beseeching men to be reconciled 
to Him." 

May no life of comfort and distinction loom 
so large that the Vision of Christ's beckoning 
hand shall not be seen. May His love — the only 
motive power strong enough to thrust forth to a 
life-service for His sake — constrain you to run on this 
sublimest and divinest errand. 

For to you the promise holds good, " They shall 
lay hands on the sick and they shall recover," . . . 

"SO THEY WENT EVERYWHERE, THE 
LORD WORKING WITH THEM, AND CON- 
FIRMING THE WORD WITH SIGNS 
FOLLOWING." 



LIST OP^ C.E.Z.M.S. MEDICAL WORKERS- 
Fully-Qualified. 

tMiss Fannv Butler ... L.K.Q.C.P. & S. Ire. 1883 

Miss E. Mitcheson ... L.R.C.P. & 8. Ed. 1883. 

Miss C. Wheeler ... M.D.Brux.,L.R.C.P.LS:S.Ed.,L.S.A. 1892 

Miss A. G. Lillingston.. L.R.C.P. & S. Ed. 1894. 

•'Miss E. (;. Adams ... L.S.A. 1896. 

. Miss V. von Himpe ... M.D. Ikux., L.S.A. 1896. 

Miss Hoist M.D. Brux., L.S.A. 1896. 

Miss Vines L.R.C.P. & S. Ed. 1896. 

Miss M.Sharp ... M.D. Brux., L.S.A. 1897. 

Miss F. Cooper ... L.S.A. 1898. 

Miss M. Longmire ... M.B.Ch.B. Glas. 1898. 

Miss M. Pantin ... L.S.A. 1899. 

Miss K. Gregg ... L.R.C.P. & S. Ed. 1900. 

Miss E.A. B. Marks... L.R.C.P. & S. Ire. 1901. 

Medically Trained. 

Miss Hewlett. 1879. ^liss Brook. 1888. 

Miss Coleman. 1881. Miss Rainsford, 1888. 

Miss F. Sharp. 1882. Miss Gordon. 1891. 

Miss Reuther. 1885. Miss E. Dawe. 1892. 

jMiss Compton. 1887. Miss Trench.* 1895. 

Miss Werthmuller. 1887. 
t At rest. * At. St. Catherine's. •^ Retired. 

N.\TiVE Workers trained at St. Catherine's, Amritsar. 
Miss Abdullah. iSSo. Mrs. Pathinkar. 1895. 

Miss Kheroth Bose. 1884. Miss M. Basu. 1895. 

(also in London \ Miss G. Mulaim-ud-din. 1895. 

Miss Basu. 1886. ' Miss Foy. 1896. 

Miss Phailbus. 1S90. Mrs. Sarah Peters. 1896. 

Miss Agnes James. 1S94. Miss S. Mulaim-ud-din. 1897. 

Native Workers Trained at Ludhiana and Elsewhere. 
Miss S. V'erana. 1900. Elizabeth Jelal-ud-din. .A.t 

Miss R. \'erana. Narowal. 

Miss Brierly. At :\Iadras (.^) 

Assistant Surgeons Trained in Madras. 
Miss L. Beaumont. 1893. Miss Lacey. 1897. 

Trained Nurses. 
Miss F. Swainson. 1SS2. Miss M.L.White. 1893. 

Miss Newman. 1883. Miss M. Barr. 1893. 

Miss Hobbs. 1887. Miss I. Chambers. 1898. 

Miss F. Johnson. 1889. Miss Piggott. 1895. 

Miss Graham. 18S5. Miss Wells.* 1895 

* Retired. 
The fore^oing list is only approximately accurate, owing to lack 
of returns, and does not include Native Nurses. 



MEDICAL MISSION WANTS. 



Aiticles. 

BEDDING. 

Pillow Covers .. 

Sheets 

Draw Sheets 
Pillow Cases 
Blankets ... 
Quilts 

FOR WARD USE. 

Towels (hand) .. 
,, (roller) ... 

Dusters ... 
BANDAGES. 

KoUer I'andages... 

Triangular 

T IJandages 

l".\e ISandages ... 



Measurements and Materials. 



Remarks. 



26 ins. by 18 ins.s ^ 
and 32 ins. by .H 
24 ins. "^ 

3 ft. by 2,V ft. and v"? 
7 ft. by 4Kt. 



2 yds. by i yd. 
26 ins. by i<S ins. 
7 ft. by 4 ft. 



For India, not wanted in China. 



-fi ' 1 



Coloured and well shrunk. 



6i ft. by 4^ ft. Turkey For China. To be made bag- 
red twill, or patch- shaped, 
work blue s(|uares 



3 ft. by 2 ft. Huckaback 
Roller towelling 



3-5 ins. wide, 6 8 yds. 
long. Unbleached 

calico, flannel, domette 

I square yard for two ... 



Upiight part, 25 ins. by 
5j ins. ; cross part, 
28 ins. by 2iins. 

S in. long, 2i in. broad 



Coarse for ordinary use, and 
fine for instruments. 



Soft unbleached calico. The 
common kind is too hard and 

stiff. 

A square yard of the material to 
be cut in half, diagonally, to 
form two bandages. The 
raw edges to be hemmed. 

The raw edges reed not be 
hemmed 



Knitted in soft white knitting 
cotton, stitch — ]dain, or 3- 
plain, 3-purl Either for one or 
both eyes. .Shaped, and with 
iS^ood length of taiie string aS 
each end. 



MEDICAL MISSION WANTS— Continued. 



Articles. 



Measurements and Materials. 



Remarks. 



Operating Aprons ... ' L'nen or jaconet macin- ' With bibs and shoulder siraiis 
tcsh '" 



Sleeves 

FOR DRESSINGS 
.\[uslin Bags 

Old Linen 
Old Flannel 

Splints 

Eye Shades... 



Slings 

Knee Caps ... 
Spectacles .. 
Powder Papers 



White calico, l6 ins. j To tie at wrist and elbow, 
long 



8 ins. l)y 8 ins., 8 iiis. by One side left open. 
6 ins., 6 ins. by 6 ins. 
Butler muslin 



... Ad lib. To be boiled before ,-ent. 



Plain flat splits, all sizes Easily made by boys. 

Single. 4| ins. long; Made of caid covered with green 
double, 7 ins. or black sateen, semilunar in 

shape, with tapes 12 ins. to 
18 ins. long. 



Knitted. 

Old ones very useful. 



5 ins. by 3.^ ins., and 
3ins. by 2 ins. 



I'ardahs (Curtains)... 2 yds. long, 3 yds. wide Plain hem top and bottom, large 

enough at the top to let in a 
thicl< slick. 



Aprons for Nurses, 
jackets 



Strong ones ; long. 



Calico, flannel, and flan- 
nelette 



Petticoats and Skirts Calio-, flannel, and flan- Coloured, 
nelette 



Pneumonia Jackets 

Babies' (iarments ... Soft muslin and flannel 



Royal Free Hospital pattern. 



Binders 



Children's Flannel 

Combinations 



3 yds. by 10 ins. Strong 
white drill 



..■*! "5 ... ..'-.L ... Made lo unfasten at waist. 



MEDICAL MISSION WANTS- Continued. 

I Measurements and Materials, i Remarks. 



Night Gowns ... ' ... 

Night Socks 

Toys ... 

Cards ... 

Bandage Winders 



Kindergarten Toys 

Scripture Pictures ... For Wall Decoration 

Surgical Instruments 

Medicines ... 

Cialvanic Batteries... 

Magic Lanterns 



Strong white or unbleached 
calico. 



Small penny ones ; and dolls ; 
but not wax ones. 

Mrs. Grimke's. 

Can be obtained from Messrs. 
Bailey & Sons, 38 Oxford 
Street, London. Price 3s. 
carriage paid. 



Without iht figure of our Lord, 



Burroughs & Wellcome's tabloid 
form. 



Slides representing the "Story 
of the heart" and " Pilgrims' 
Progress," &c. 



All gifts (in kind only) for the C.E.Z.ALS. .Medical Mission work 
should be sent to the Superintendent of the Society's Ijome and De|)ot^ 
Manor House, 20 Leigh Road, Highbury, London, X. 



MEDICAL EQUIPMENT 

RICADERS of this book who may desire further ir»formation 
as to a Medical Course preparatory to service in the 
rorei.Ljn field are earnestly urged to consider the importance 
ofobtaininga University degreeoradiploma; for the respon- 
sibilities which have to be assumed by the Medical Missionary in 
the foreign field are far heavier than those which fall upon the general 
practitioner at home, since she must be a specialist in each 
branch, medical and surgical, and often is compelled to treat alone, 
without the possibility of consultation, the most critical and urgent 
cases. The Medical Missionary must be every inch a missionary, 
but every inch a doctor also. Consequently the most thorough 
training obtainable should be aimed at ; for to be well qualified is 
more important for one who is going abroad than for one who 
intends to practise at home. A spiritual, Biblical, mental, scientific, 
and up-to-date equipment is absolutely essential. 

University examination fees are not the most expensive, although 
the course requires a longer period of study. 

For the London University Classes the fees are as follows : — 
Preliminary Scientific Classes — ^21. 
Remaining four years (including extra classes for London 

students) — ^135 (paid in four instalments). 
Examination F'ees, after Matriculation — ^15. 
In addition to these fees, there will be a cost of about ^{^20 for 
Midwifery, Fevers, and extra Classes. 

Scholarships and grants are available, and at the London (Royal 
Free Hospital) School of Medicine for Women the Fanny Butler 
Scholarship, value ^14 los. a year for four years, is open only to 
Candidates willing to practise in connection with the Church of 
England Zenana Missionary Society, and who have been approved 
by this Society. 



,IMI'S(lN AM) CO., 1.11).. TIIK KICHMOM) I'Kl' 
KICHMOM) .-^NT) LONDON. 



By the same Author. T/iird Edition. 

LONDiiN : 

Messrs. MARSHALL BROTHERS, Keswick House, Paternoster Row, E.G. 
C.E.Z.M.S., 27, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

"Behind the Pardah." 

The Story of C.E Z.iM.S. VVorli in India, by Irknk H. Barnes. 

With Preface by the Ri-.v. T. A Gurnky, Rector of Swanagc. 

Copiously Illustrated by J. D. Mackknzik and Pkrcy R. Crai-t 

(of Nevvlyn). 

Crown 8v(). 264 pp. Published at 3s. 6d. 

Reviews of "Behind the Pardah." 

The liookselU'r.— ' 'Vhi.- work of tlic C K./.M S. in India is one of the must valuable ck- 
r ailments of Christian worU in our threat dcpencleucy ; and Miss Barnts i ;i'~ 
told the s ory of this jjreat movement with mucii power and pathos." 

r/iL A'li 01(1 — "We wish it a wiile circulation anioni; leisured ;iud cultured women.' 

hiiCuian Literary Siippleinciit. — "Miss liarnes has rendered a signal service to Zeuan.i 
Missions in jjeiicral by her storv of the C.K.Z.M.S. . . . Wo most heartily 
c 'Uimendthis excellent book. " 

IJtciiii V W'orlti. — "The book is unusuallv well illuslialed, and is nplete with impoitanl 
information." 



Fi/t/i Edition. 

"Behind the Great Wall." 

Tlic Story of CrE.Z.M.S. Work in China, by Iri:.\i; H. Harxes. 

Witli Preface by the Right Re\'. the Lord Bishop oi- Durha.m. 

Beautifully Illustrated from Photos. 

Crown 8v(). 176 pp. Publislicd at 2s. 6d. 



Reviews of " Behind the Great ViTall." 

CJLS. //(/(■///.■jl'/j.c-;.— 'We th.-uik theSociel\ um -o cxcelleiU an addition lo our Mi<- 
-lonary literature- " 

I'liL Record. — " Ur. .Moule contributes a I'refatc in winch he lii^hlN pr. rises the volume 
and we can add no better reconimcndation than that even he found him-elf in 
page after paj^e. furnished with quite new sets of facts, presentei with cpiite 
new aspects of Chinese lile, and brouiiht face to face with botli incidents .nid 
persons full of the newest and deepest interest." 



A PARABLE IN PORCELAIN 

AND OrilEIs' I'.M'ICKS 

A Dainty Gift Book. Published at is. 



CHURCH 01' ENGLAND 

Zenana Missionary Society. 



Ipatroncss . 

H.R.H. The DUCHESS ok CONNAUGHT. 

B5l•csi^ent : 

The countess of DARNLEY, 

t)on. •CrcaSUier : COLOXEI. RoHKKT WIM.IAMS, M.P. 

Clerical Secretary! : Thk IM'.v. cicorcI'. toxck, m.a. 

CEentral Hsscciation Secretarv: Miss MULVANY. 

%av, Secretarv; K. c. MAcnoXAl.l), Ksy. 

•rganising Secretary: Tmk K'KV. h. d. WILLIAMSON. M.A. 

EMtorial Supcrinten^ent ; Miss IKFAK H. UARNKS. 

SupcrintenJicut of tbc Soeictv's Hjouee aub Sepot : 

MRS. S. IJARDSLKY, Manor House. Hiiiliburv. \. 

JGankers : 

WILLIAMS. DKACOX. \M> MAXCIIKSTER X SALKORl) l'.\XK. 



Contributions in aid of the Society to be made payable to the Lay 
Secretary, 

Offices of the Society : 27, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, VV.C. 



For full iiitorni:iU()ii ic.^Jardiiii.; the Society's StaUon> and Work >ee : — 

"Purpose, Principles and Progress supplied gratis, and also 
the Society's Magazines: — 

" India's Women and China's Daughters. Illustrated, Monthly. 
One Penny. 

"Daybreak." For Students and other Girls. Illustrated, Quarterl\. 
One Penny. 

The Society also publishes a \cry large selection of Illustrated 
Missionary BOOKS and BOOKLETS, from One Halfpennv 
to 3s. 6d.; and a series of GRATIS LITERATURE. 



Oil View and Sale at 

The SOCIETYS BOOK ROOM, and at 
MARSHALL BROTHERS. 

Keswick House, Paternoster Row. E.G. 






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